Water and Sanitation


Water and Sanitation

Water-related diseases cause a significant strain on Human health In Kenya and World At large. Most of the diseases occur due to unavailability of clean water either for drinking, cooking or cleaning food substances. Others occur as a result of poor sanitation and personal hygiene. Water-related diseases are largely preventable and affect a significant population in the world apart from being preventable in nature. These exert a toll on the Economy significantly affecting health services provision. The problem is more common in the developing World. Cholera outbreaks have been resulted in millions of deaths every year.

Water-related infectious Diseases can be classified into five main sub-types:

  • Water-borne
  • Water-washed
  • Water-based
  • Water-related insect vector
  • Diseases caused by Poor Sanitation


Waterborne diseases are acquired when people drink contaminated water or eat food that has been prepared with contaminated water. This forms the bulk of all water-related diseases. The diseases are normally transmitted fecal-orally, acquired when human wastes find their way in water bodies or supplies.

They include:

  • Cholera
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Girdiasis
  • Typhoid fever
  • Amoebiasis
  • Hepatitis
  • Other gastroenteritis causing bacterial infections

Cholera is the most common and deadliest occurring in epidemics in developing world. It’s a bacteria infection caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria. It causes severe diarrhea leading to dehydration and subsequent mass deaths.


Water-washed diseases occur as a result of poor personal hygiene resulting from inadequate water availability. Improve water supply and enhanced personal hygiene comes hardy in prevention of these ailments.

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