Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer

Definition

Bladder cancer involves a group of cancers that range from non–life-threatening, low-grade, superficial papillary lesions to high-grade invasive tumors. There are various types of bladder cancer defined.

What are the types of bladder cancer?

The international Society of Urological Pathology Consensus had defined a mode of classification of bladder cancer as follows:

Normal

There is a normal bladder lining (urothelium) on physical and microscopic examination. Some cases of mild dysplasia may be classified here.

Hyperplasia

There is a flat bladder lining increased growth (urothelial hyperplasia) and papillary urothelial hyperplasia

Flat urothelial Lesions with atypia

  • Histological examination reveals a reactive (inflammatory) cell abnormality (atypia)
  • Histology may reveal cell abnormality (atypia) of unknown clinical significance
  • Microscopic cell examination shows low-grade bladder lining type of cancer or dysplasia (intraurothelial neoplasia)
  • There is a carcinoma in situ presenting with a high-grade intraurothelial neoplasia.

Papillary urothelial cancers

  • Urothelial papilloma
  • Inverted urothelial papilloma
  • Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential
  • High grade papillary urothelial neoplasm
  • Low grade papillary urothelial neoplasm

Invasive urothelial neoplasm

  • Urothelial carcinoma with lamina propria invasion
  • Urothelial carcinoma with muscularis propria (affecting the detrusor muscle) invasion

What cause bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer is a potentially preventable disease associated with specific causative factors. Most of the causative factors also cat as risk factors . Continuous exposure to these leads to bladder cancer. Here are some of the causes:
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Occupational exposures to chemicals
  • Exposure to human papilloma virus type 16
  • Infections such as schistosomiasis, tuberculosis
  • Urinary calculi
  • Prolonged use of urinary indwelling catheters
  • Diverticula
  • Drugs such as cyclophosphamide
  • Radiation to pelvic structures
  • Exstrophy of bladder a congenital condition of being born with the abdominal wall open with the bladder muscle open
  • Females with endometriosis
  • Other congenital bladder abnormalities
  • Metastatic spread from other sites such as the colon and ovary

What are the risks of having bladder cancer?

Several factors play a role in having bladder cancer such as:
  • Extremes of age. There is an increased risk of bladder cancer especially among the aged population of over 65years. Close to 70% of these cancers are common among males of this age group and 75% among the females.
  • Cigarette smoking has been show to increase the risks of having bladder cancer among both sexes. Smokers have twice the risk of bladder cancer as nonsmokers. There is a twofold to threefold increase in risk of bladder cancer in subjects who smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day. Close to 50% of males who have bladder cancer are smokers while 30% of females are smokers.
  • Exposure to certain chemicals poses a risk to many. Occupational chemical exposure to substances such as arylamines and its derivatives which may also be found in cigarette smoke, O-toluidine, and benzidine-based dyes leads to cancer of the bladder. Other occupational risks include exposure to dyes, rubber, leather products, paint products, and drill press operators.
  • Drugs such as cyclophosphamide can cause bladder cancer if used on a long term basis.
  • Diet that are rich in beef, pork, and animal fat consumption increase risk of bladder cancer among both sexes.
  • Evidence suggests that consumption of non-beer alcoholic drinks can cause bladder cancer. The high levels of nitrosamines in beer has been implicated in causing bladder cancer
  • In populations living in swampy or stagnant waters and lakes, there are cases of infections with bilharzias (schistosomiasis) that can lead to bladder cancer.
  • Spinal cord injury is associated with increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder.

How smoke increases the risk of bladder cancer

  • Tobacco Smoke Contains these Substances ;
  1. Aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, and acrolein
  2. Alkaloids such as nicotine
  3. Minerals & Elements such as aluminum; arsenic; cadmium ;Carbon Monoxide; Hydrocarbons; lead ; mercury; nitrogen oxides ; ozone; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons; radioactive polonium; lithium. Each cigarette contains 2 micrograms of Cadmium and more than 50% of this is absorbed through the Lungs.
  4. Tobacco smoke is the most significant source of environmental exposure to Cadmium.
  • Studies have shown that there is a twofold increased risk of bladder cancer in people smoking at least 10 cigarettes per day
  • Smokers who consume low-tar and nicotine cigarettes have a lower risk of developing bladder cancer when compared with those who consume higher tar and nicotine cigarettes.
  • Those who consume high numbers of unfiltered cigarettes and to some extent the passive smokers have a 50% increased risk of bladder cancer compared with those who smoke filtered cigarettes.
  • Those who smoke pipe have a lower risk of bladder cancer compared with cigarette smokers.

Substances that may increase the toxic effects of tobacco

  • Consumption of high levels of beta-Carotene supplements in concurrent with the use of tobacco has been shown to increase the risks of blade and other types of cancer. The intake of the beta carotenes in the presence of tobacco smoke in the lungs leads to oxidation of epoxides that can increase the binding of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon diolepoxides to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the Lungs. This can cause mutations that lead to Cancer.
  • High consumption of caffeine among smokers leads to the craving for tobacco. The alkaloids found in the tobacco are responsible.
Continue reading Staging bladder cancer using the TNM system.

Valentines Day: A complete woman’s guide

Valentines Day: A complete woman’s guide

Valentines Day: A complete woman’s guide

Imagine yourself in a movie. You wake up the following day, shower or just before that, stare at the figure in front of you on the mirror and …..oops! You see the best booby, the best behind and the cutest faces you ever saw.

Put that cucumber down- we’ll have plenty of time to play later. You’ll soon stop thinking like a man and learn to think like woman.

In the living room, you press on the messages and a number of them are waiting for you. «Hey gal, its mike from Club Dimples, we met yesterday? I thought…eerrrr…we could meet, if that’s ok with you. If you are ready, this is my number. Please call back. Then comes the next one: Hi cute little thing, its Jack. What’s up sugar? You were so moody last night. I couldn’t see you. Will you call me back?

Let’s fast forward to the mall, where you spend a fortune on facials, cosmetics and clothing. You had your nails done, pedicure, and massage…its party time. You start choosing what to wear….»But wait, don’t I look fat….» crying. «No, sweetie, your hips are good, your friend responds. You get weird thoughts about yourself. It’s an emergency here. Just few days to go to Val’s day, you need a complete facial and body makeover. Everybody is in it and you can’t be left behind.

Welcome back to earth. I hope I made you think of this day deeply. No more movies. In this planet, we have men. These are a certain species of beings with minds, and eyes, eyes that are predatory. And they make a kill out of them. Men are visual human beings. They look at facts and digest them instantly. Well they look at women and that’s it. A man has few things that are still carries on from childhood to adulthood.

From the time when mother’s breasts were all the beauty the world could offer, both sexes have had feelings of enlarged, enhanced life from seeing a gloriously naked woman. The male body holds no such primitive magic. It is one of the dissymmetries of our biological life.

In matters of love, you must understand that men are emotionally much more sensitive than women. Thus, it is much more humane to be firm and break a man’s heart early than to let him get his hopes up only to waste away in anguish or vindictiveness.

Women control intimacy. His is a powerful tool, and the extraordinary emotional power they have over men needs some form of responsibility to steer men in the right direction.

The game of love is a lot more complicated than sex. Do men only want one thing- – sex? No. If it were true that men only wanted one thing, then all men would be visiting brothels for this. Do all women want one thing– sex? If that were true then all women would be visiting gigolos. Men and women are two completely different creatures that must come together in a relationship.

Valentine’s Day is here and this is your chance to spice up the relationship

Love and romance

Think about the following things; «What about the two of you? What about your future? Where are you going?» It may not be for Valentines Day alone but from now on, a few tips could help you send him messages of your intentions. These include;

  • Your visit to his crib. While visiting him, leave your personal effects in his home. This is a clear territory demarcation. Other females will get the message too. By the way, even animals do this. Without territorial markings, you have no chance. Other will do it. Even if it means leaving your scarf in his car, send the message.
  • Your mother is your attorney. Quite interesting, the experienced lover has some lectures to give.
  • Have you met his family? You won’t get noticed. Probably Mike has another one at upcountry. Just check.
  • Gifts, gifts, gifts. Even lingerie for him.
  • Give him an ultimatum. You are not cheap to be used up. Let him prove your worthiness. On this day, you could play cat and mouse till the proves you worth.
  • Give him a complete home make over. Rearrange his kitchen, bedroom. After all one day it will be yours, you may do this just be for the main event.
  • Arrive unannounced at his home, with groceries, etc. But be careful this may sound that you are sneaking in on him. Some guys just don’t like it, and it may mean you raise your antenna.
  • When introducing yourself to others, your boss, your friends, church mates, mention these words; wife, mistress, or fiancée, it’s the weapon at your disposal.
  • Drive his car, but don’t crash it. It could crash your romance too. Men and toys are one thing.
  • Surprise him with midweek luncheon dates and come with two or three of your secretarial friends and/or your mother.
  • Clean up his house. You have the freedom to remove all unwanted magazines, his other women’s stuff,… and tell him

Continue reading Valentines Day time: A complete woman’s guide.

Diagnosing and screening breast cancer

Diagnosing and screening breast cancer

Diagnosing and screening breast cancer

What breast cancer may resemble

These non cancerous conditions may resemble breast cancer because of the presentation and on mammography examination

  1. Fibrocystic changes of the breasts
  2. Fibroadenoma
  3. Hamartoma

What test are done to diagnose breast cancer

The healthcare provider will perform a series of tests including taking a detailed history and physical examination from the patient. Among the test done include:

Read moreDiagnosing and screening breast cancer

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Definition

Breast cancer is an invasive cancer of the breast affecting both men and women. The local cells of the breast grow abnormally and uncontrollable increase in size and spread to other area s of the body.

Other names

Carcinoma of the breast

What causes breast cancer?

Various causes of breast cancer have been explained, but the exact cause is still unknown. There are numerous risk factors that increasingly relate to the development of breast cancer such as:

  • The increase in age of a person. It is estimated that close to 50% of women with breast cancer in the western world are more that 60years of age
  • The earlier a girl gets in to menarche especially at <12 year, the higher the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • When approaching menopause late especially at over 55 years, one has an increased risk of developing breast cancer. This is an indirect cause.
  • The increasing the number of menstrual cycles could predispose women to greater DNA damage in the proliferating breast ductal tissue and thus could increase the risk of mutations that directly lead to breast cancer.
  • Child bearing at a later age is a predisposing factor to breast cancer in women.
  • Any form of benign breast tissue disease may increase the risk of cancer
  • Women who live sedentary lifestyles and do not exercise often are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer
  • Breast cancer has been associated with women who live in upper socioeconomic classes. This may also be associated with more sedentary lifestyles
  • Personal history of breast cancer (in situ or invasive)
  • Postmenopausal hormone replacement treatments with estrogen hormones (with or without progestin) have been shown to increase the risk of getting breast cancer. The risk is increased by about 1.5times
  • Developing obesity after menopause increases the risks of breast cancer in women
  • The use of oral contraceptives increases breast cancer risk minimally if at all. It is t known whether estrogen replacement alone increases risk. However there is a much more increased risk in using these hormones in leaner postmenopausal women. The exact mechanism of cancer formation is unknown but there is a possibly of interaction of ovarian estrogen and other types of estrogens of external origin with breast tissue that leads to susceptibility to develop cancer of the breast
  • Alcohol is also associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer. Surveys show that moderate alcohol intake (two to three drinks/day) has a 1 to 1.8 times the risk of developing cancer.
  • Diet effects. Increased estrogen levels have been found in women with a higher BMI. These pose as an increased risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Family history of breast cancer is a risk factor in women. The risk in first degree relatives is 2 to 4 times more. Having relatives of known high risk factors also play a role. Having two first degree relatives with breast cancer increases the risk by 5 times.
  • Women with an increased bone density have been shown to have a risk of developing cancer.
  • Having children at a later age of more than 30 years poses as a risk to women to develop breast cancer. There is even an increased risk in non-child bearing women ( nulliparous)
  • Women with a personal history of endometrial cancer do have a risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Women with larger breast masses have a more breast density that increases the breast cancer risk. The density can be shown through mammography
  • Exposure to radiation to the chest poses as a risk of developing breast cancer in women.
  • Women with an established breast cancer gene BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 are associated with high risk of developing the cancer

Continue reading Epidemiology of breast cancer.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer

Lung cancer

Definition

This is primary lung malignancy that arises from the lung tissue. There are several types of primary cancer of the lung including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Here are some of the listed types

Adenocarcinomas: These types of cancers are common in North America and Japan. They tend to occur among smokers, although nonsmokers are more likely to develop adenocarcinoma than other lung cancer types. On radiological examination, they are found more peripherally, but can occur almost anywhere, and can be multifocal. They have been known to fill the entire lobe of the lung tissue. Other x-ray findings show that they are associated with solid opacities, ground-glass opacities, or mixed patterns. Epidemiologically, Adenocarcinomas represent 35%-40% of lung carcinomas. The variants of adenocarcinomas include types such as signet ring, clear cell, mucinous, and fetal adenocarcinomas

Squamous cell (Epidermoid): This type of cancer tends to occur centrally and is highly associated a history of smoking. It’s a malignancy that shows squamous differentiation 20% to 30% of lung cancers. It spreads by locally invading the surrounding tissues and forms cavities in the lungs. The differential diagnosis includes reactive processes that may result in squamous metaplasia with reactive atypia as seen during infections or radiation-induced injury

Read moreLung cancer

Exercise in pregnancy; what you need to know

Exercise in pregnancy; what you need to know

Exercise in pregnancy; what you need to know

Exercise in pregnancy; what you need to know

You may have been having a regular exercise program or are planning to have one. There are various types of exercises available programmed ranges from light to heavy depending on your ability to manage.

Now that you are pregnant, your exercise options become limited during but a number of excellent choices exist. Activities involving running or jogging, walking, aerobic dance, bicycling, swimming, and tennis can all be pursued to some degree. Some activities should be taken up before you conceive if you wish to continue them while you’re pregnant.

Running or Jogging

We advice that you start this before conception, otherwise your muscles may not be able to support your loosening joints. This type of exercise is aimed at giving most or your muscles some strength and stamina that will help you carry the pregnancy. Trust me; you will need that strength for 9 months. If you have been doing this for some time before becoming pregnant, you may continue to pursue these activities without harm. You may enroll in a gym to have this done on the treadmill or get out to the nearest club that has sporting facilities.

Walking

Brisk walking at any time, say while going to work, or from work, while going shopping or just work out at your neighborhood helps you burn a good number of calories. You are advised to start brisk walking anytime, including during pregnancy. To do this, begin slowly bearing in mind that the whole idea is to increase your activity level gradually. Start with 5 to 10 minutes at a time and slowly increase to 20 or 30 minutes three or four times per week. Avoid this in high temperatures or humidity but you may exercise outdoors. Remember also the type of shoes you wear, High heeled shoes are a NO, NO for this type of activity. Get some good comfortable shoes, which are not tight.

Cycling

Before you start on this, make sure you have done this before, and you know how to ride a bike. Accidents happen and this is not the best time to have one. Cycling is important in that it gives you good cardiovascular workout. It’s not a weight-bearing activity and this means that the increasing weight of pregnancy will not affect your ability to continue. It is advisable to start on a regular cycling schedule before trying to conceive but even after conception this is safe. Remember always to start very easily and increase slowly. Stationary bicycles are probably the safest to use; and can be used by the pros and those who are learning to ride too. With stationary ones you avoid road traffic accidents and other risks.

Swimming

This is probably the best type of exercise. Water supports your weight during this activity. This is the best program and you may even forget that you are pregnant. Some facilities provide aquanatal classes with qualified instructors. Medical evidence indicates that submersion in water may help reduce leg edema (swelling) which affects at least 50 percent of pregnant women. It is postulated that the pressure of the water squeezes excess water from your body tissues into your bloodstream, which then gets rid of it. Avoid Jacuzzis, hot tubs, and water that is above 100°F, as these tend to overheat the body!.

Other Sports

There some sports that must be avoided. Skiing or horseback riding can cause traumatic injury to the fetus or separation of the placenta. Scuba diving has been associated with fetal hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and should be avoided. Tennis involve frequent turning, twisting, and jumping are not highly recommended during pregnancy.

Read moreExercise in pregnancy; what you need to know

Health Hazards of cigarettes

Health Hazards of cigarettes

Health Hazards of cigarettes

Smokes are smoked by over 1.1 billion people. While smoking rates possess leveled off or declined in developed nations, in developing nations tobacco usage continues to rise at a rate of around 3.4% per annum. (WHO SMOKING STATISTICS)

According to a rating by Wikipedia of cigarette usage per capita, Kenya falls 110th with 167 smokes per adult per year.
Hmmmh…At least were not in the top ten… I can hear some of you saying. But isn’t even appearing on the list is definitely bad enough? Since July 2007 apparently the federal government of Kenya thought so and therefore enforced the cigarette smoking ban in public.
Director of Medical Providers (DMS) James Nyikal said tobacco killed some 12,000 Kenyans each full year and a community ban would reduce that amount

Read moreHealth Hazards of cigarettes

Tooth discoloration; what causes it

Tooth discoloration; what causes it

Tooth discoloration; what causes it

Tooth discoloration is the change in color from the normal white enamel to the darkening or brownish discoloration. Persistent tooth discoloration can also occur as a result of the gradual thinning of the enamel layer of the tooth.

This thinning allows for more yellow -brown dentin formation underneath becoming visible. This is called amelogenesis imperfecta

What causes tooth discoloration?

Several factors play a role in this process. Exposure to some chemical s can also promote tooth discoloration in some individuals.

In amelogenesis imperfecta, the enamel is often absent and the exposed dentin has a yellowish-brown discoloration. This condition is an inherited disorder with defective tooth enamel formation caused by various gene mutations. The condition is treated with resin veneers and jacket crowns for anterior teeth, as well as steel crowns for posterior teeth

Tooth discoloration may be due to substances such as Fluoride. Excessive exposure to fluoride from drinking water, tooth pastes, supplements, and infant formulas results in fluorosis a condition of excess fluoride in the system. The excess fluoride interacts with mineralizing tissues, causing alterations in the mineralization process especially in the teeth. fluoride in the drinking water in excess of 1.5 parts per million causes coloration

  • Color disturbance may also be due to secondary to inflammation
  • Vitamin deficiencies can also cause color changes in teeth
  • Trauma to the enamel leads to the exposure of denting that shows a yellow-brown coloration
  • An isolated tooth with a grayish – blue hue may indicate the presence of a necrotic pulp, often due to prior trauma.
  • A tooth that appears pink (pink tooth of Mummery) indicates an internal tooth resorption.
  • Yellow to violet staining that fluoresces under ultraviolet light is normally due to exposure to tetracycline. It is advisable to avoid these drugs during pregnancy and up to 18 years of age as the teeth are growing and developing. Tetracycline also destroys the calcium deposits
  • It has been shown that regular use of Mouthwashes that contain Chlorhexidine as their active ingredient increases the incidence of tooth discoloration.
  • Tobacco smoking may lead to tooth discoloration.
  • Excessive consumption of coffee may cause tooth discoloration.

How to treat tooth discoloration

Tooth discoloration is an uncomfortable situation in many individuals. The causes can easily be treated and re-coloration established.

The following are some of the substances that can help treat the tooth discoloration

  • Use of toothpastes that contain substance such as soluble pyrophosphates as active ingredients may help to minimize the discoloration caused by chlorhexidine-containing Mouthwashes.
  • When applied to the teeth topically, or used as chewing gum, sodium bicarbonate help to reverse the discoloration by whitening the teeth. The substance also helps to remove stains from the teeth
  • Substances such as casein phosphopeptide when used topically to the teeth may remove the tooth discoloration by whitening them.
  • The commonest used bleaching agents for tooth discoloration include carbamide Peroxide (10% – 44%). This is an active ingredient in many bleaching agents and has shown success. It has to be used by a dentist for treatment
  • Hydrogen Peroxide (1% – 10%) is also an active ingredient in many other tooth bleaching gels used. Some of the gels can be purchased as over the counter drugs. Cautions; never buy the undiluted peroxide as it is very corrosive to the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Titanium Dioxide has for some time been used in tooth whiteners as a whitening pigment to polish the teeth.

Consult your dentist in management of this condition.

Why babies wake you up at night

Why babies wake you up at night

Why babies wake you up at night

Babies don’t think like you. They don’t have a plan and their biological clock is still underdeveloped, definitely not fit for you to maintain your normal daily routines. In fact babies’ sole programs on some days are designed to keep you awake as some may thinks.

After Bob and Nancy had their first child, they send a shout out to all the friends declaring their joy. One of the commonest responses that tagged their congratulatory messages was, ‘be ready to be on night shift’.
So what causes babies to cry especially at odd hours?

These are some of the causes:

  1. Hunger. When that brand new bundle of joy is hungry, it has only one way of communication, cry. They don’t talk, they don’t gesture out what they want, and they don’t tell you when to feed them. The point is study the times they need to feed.
  2. Thirst. Remember hunger and thirst goes hand in hand.
  3. Unusual temperatures. Keeping them in hot environs or not covering them brings out the cries, in them.
  4. Dirty diaper. The babies’ anal sphincters are not yet developed to have voluntary control. They will soil the clothing or nappies at any time, and when this wetness persists, they cry out for help.
  5. Boredom. You have one little individual who hates boredom. Keep him/her entertained when awake at all times. Or else.
  6. Pain. Colicky pains, tight fitting clothing, fever or anything that causes pain will bring out the cry.
  7. Fear. AS they grow up and start understanding the environments, they develop trust in the parents or caregivers. At certain ages, neighbors or strangers that are of course unknown to them will make then to cry out of fear.
  8. Overstimulation. Exposure to loud noises, music, sudden loud bangs or anything that stimulates them will elicit cries.

Read moreWhy babies wake you up at night

Infant colic

Infant colic

Infant colic

Infant colic is a common symptom that presents at or about 1 month of age and prevails to about 3 month s of age. The exact cause in not known but there are several theories to explain it. The most plausible one is that the baby’s intestines are still undeveloped and therefore become oversensitive to the movement of food and air through it. The frequent swallowing of air as they suckle also causes more air to accumulate in the gut. The pain that comes with movement of foods and air accumulation causes her to cry.

How do children with colic behave?

The baby is always moody and fussy with persistent crying. This may last hours if the colic is not resolved and may come frequently for up to 3 hours per day. The child cries by pulling the knees up to chest, and passing some flatus. Usually there is no fever present. The colic may star at 3 to 4 weeks and the crying episodes peak at about at 6 weeks and resolves by 3–4 months.

How to manage infant colic

This is mostly a nightmare to most parent especially new parents. The most important thing is not to blame yourselves for not dong enough to prevent or manage the condition. Try to follow these steps

  • Do not over stimulate the baby. Provide a calm environment may be with some cool soothing music in the back ground.
  • You may carry the baby and swaddle her by swinging or even give a car ride to soothe.
  • Avoid medication and formula changes. Encourage breaks for the primary caregiver.
  • Burping your baby correctly may help alleviate any air that is trapped in the gut and thus reduce the colic, although it’s unlikely to prevent the symptoms altogether.
  • If you’re bottle feeding the baby, watch the position of the bottle to be sure that she does not suck in any air. Always ensure the best breastfeeding practices such as proper positioning of the breast (to fill the mouth of the baby). Proper positioning of the breast ensure that less air will be sucked in
  • Ensure that when you are bottle feeding, the holes in the nipples aren’t too small. Tiny holes are extremely frustrating for a baby because she has to suck harder and for longer and this leads to more air being sucked in to the gut.
  • Try some anti-colic medications. Some baby colic drops contain dimethicone, or simethicone that has an anti-foaming action on the stomach contents. It is however important to note that there is no guarantee that it will cure your baby’s colic

Questions about baby colic

Does my diet have anything to do with baby colic?

It’s quite possible that what ever you are eating may trigger or even make the colic worse with time. How ever babies who are prone to colic tend to have symptoms on most days, and your diet can obviously vary from day to day. Diets with foods such as citrus fruits or the juices may worsen, or even perhaps trigger, colic in breast-fed babies.
Another possible trigger of baby colic is cow’s milk. Some infants have allergies to the protein in cow milk and may present with colic, so try to eliminate milk and dairy products from your diet when this becomes persistent.

What other foods should I avoid to prevent colic?

If your baby develops persistent colicky symptoms more frequently, it may also be due to some of the foods you eat that trigger this. Perennial offenders include “gassy” foods such as cabbage, onions, garlic, broccoli, and turnips; and caffeine. You may have to change your diet to avoid this. It is however of paramount importance to note that if the baby is exclusively bottle feeding and you avoid giving cow milk, find diets that have rich sources of calcium to supplement to loss of calcium.

Common causes of hair loss in children

Common causes of hair loss in children

Common causes of hair loss in children

Hair loss in children is a common observation. There are several causes and most of them are easily treatable. Among the commonest know causes include:

Fungal infection (TINEA CAPITIS)

Fungal skin and scalp infections account for the majority causes of hair loss. The prevalence is about 90% of causes presenting to the doctor. The fungus has no known natural reservoir and persists for long periods on fomites, such as hairbrushes, combs, furniture, stuffed toys, and clothing. The highest incidence of this kind of infection is during school opening season when there is over crowding and contact with the infected persons. Most patients are between 1 and 10 years of age, but infection may occur at any age.

The infection survives in environments such as tight braiding, or the use of pomades.

How fungal infection presents:

The classic presentation is of one or more round to oval patches of partial to complete hair loss and with varying degrees of redness at the infection site. There may be repeated episodes of itchiness and scratching. The scratching may lead to secondary bacterial infection since there is introduction of bacteria to the injured area.

How is Tinea Diagnosed?

The bets diagnosis is clinical. The doctor examines and notices a clear pattern of presentation to the scalp. Some of the lesions may be noted on other sites such as the skin on the armpit, neck, fingers and interdigital spaces. A lab test with KOH staining also helps diagnose the fungi. The fungi are collected with a toothbrush on a culture plate or on a moistened culturette swab.

Treating fungal scalp infections

Treatment may be difficult in some patients due to various factors such as, repeated infections, poor drug compliance, incorrect diagnosis or resistance to treatment. Successful treatment requires a combination therapy with oral griseofulvin tablets and antifungal creams. Some antifungal shampoos are also available for use such as ketoconazole (candid –TV) shampoo. Griseofulvin is the agent of choice that is best taken with fatty food to promote absorption. The treatment may last 4 to 6 weeks or even up to 12 weeks depending on the response to treatment and severity.

Other types of shampoos in use include selenium sulfide 2.5%. This is done twice weekly

Partial hair loss (ALOPECIA AREATA)

Alopecia areata is a condition that is characterized by the sudden onset of asymptomatic round, bald patches located on any hair-bearing part of the body. The presentation is common on the head. There are no hair follicles and the patients have a scaly reddish crusting on the scalp. There may be pus formation too. Most patients recover well and have hair growing back in 1 to 2 years.

How alopecia areata is treated?

The main aim of treatment is to reduce the inflammation and infections. Treatments available include the use of topical steroids, topical minoxidil, tar preparations, and anthralin. Some healthcare providers may also use ultraviolet light to treat. The medications with minoxidil are used to promote hair growth and give good results.

TELOGEN EFFLUVIUM

This is a form of hair loss that is characterized by diffuse alopecia that is usually not clinically obvious to anyone but the patient and parent. The causes may be due to physiologic and pathologic stresses such as recent infections, high fever, severe influenza, surgery, and drugs. The hair follicles normally regress to the resting, or telogen, state of hair cycle. Telogen effluvium usually occurs 3 to 5 months after the stressor and is self-limited. The patients need not worry about it but may use minoxidil in cases of severe hair loss.

TRICHOTILLOMANIA

Trichotillomania is a type of hair loss that is caused by the compulsion to pull out one’s own hair. This applies traction to the hair leading to hair loss. The patients may present with areas of incomplete hair loss. Some of the hairs appear short and broken. Amazingly other areas involved include the eyebrows and eyelashes. This condition may be due to a psychiatric illness and treating it may help resolve the compulsion.

TRACTION ALOPECIA

Traction alopecia is hair loss that comes after forms of hairstyles that apply tension for long periods of time. Some patients also do like to pull on their hairs and this can cause hair loss (see Trichotillomania). The patients normally have noninflammatory linear areas of hair loss at the margins of the hairline, part line, or scattered regions, depending on hair styling or mode of traction used. The best treatment is avoidance of the causes of traction or styling products or styles that result in traction.

Men: 4 Things You Must Check With Your Doctor

Men: 4 Things You Must Check With Your Doctor

Men: 4 Things You Must Check With Your Doctor

Lifestyle is changing fast as well as the diets we have on a daily basis. These have a direct bearing on our health except for the genetic messages that we transfer to our offspring in the years to come.

We may not have much influence in the genetics but our own health matters a lot and how we manage it. A simple visit to a doctor may reveal a lot about you, especially if you have any family history of genetically related conditions. In this day and age, doctors are now recommending frequent health checks, just to keep everything in order.
Picture this, have you ever run down your car all year round, with no trip to the mechanic for fuel filter check, or tire check or change in the engine oil. We spend so much ‘pimping our rides” than we spend on our health. Well just as much as we spend on the rides; let’s take time to pimp our bodies, for once. Periodic health checks in the following body systems are recommended.

The Eye check up

  • The healthcare provider will check for any vision problems such as far or nearsightedness.
  • Eye muscle disorders tend to be common and need to be looked into too.

It is important to note that any history of conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, hyperthyroidism or a family history of glaucoma plays an important role in the way you think about your eyes. Can you drive at night with no headlights on? That’s what it means. See you nearest ophthalmologist.

Read moreMen: 4 Things You Must Check With Your Doctor

Diabetes: Are you scared of it?

Diabetes: Are you scared of it?

Diabetes: Are you scared of it?

What exactly is diabetes? What types do we know and what can we do about it –this is what this article is all about

WHAT IS DIABETES?

Diabetes is essentially all about blood sugar control.
Normally our blood sugar levels are all within a certain range between 3.5 mmol/L and 8 mmol/L depending on whether we are fasting or have just eaten. We have a delicate balance of blood sugar, controlled by a number of different hormones, the most important of which is Insulin.

We speak about Diabetes when the blood sugar goes above the normal reference ranges on a continuous basis.
What happens when the blood sugar is higher then normal?
It tends to stick to certain proteins in the body and leads to the symptoms & signs of diabetes, and eventually to complications if not managed adequately.

Read moreDiabetes: Are you scared of it?

Good sugar control means better quality of life for many years!

Good sugar control means better quality of life for many years!

Good sugar control means better quality of life for many years!

Good sugar control

Good sugar control means better quality of life for many years! Insulin is a vital hormone that helps to keep our sugars within normal range. As we get older we tend to produce less insulin as our pancreas and in particular our Beta cells (found in the pancreas) produce less insulin

.In a person with a gene for diabetes, this process is accelerated, Beta cell fatigue comes faster and results are much less insulin production over time.

In addition we also get insulin resistance, that is, we require more amounts of insulin to get the same results; this is especially true in people who are overweight and do not exercise enough. Just exercising and loosing weight would make this resistance to insulin become less, thus allowing our Beta cells to function for longer!

Although glucose is a fuel used by our cells to produce energy, an excess of it in the body leads to the various complications of diabetes. In addition a high sugar level predisposes us to more infections, increased healing time from ordinary infections, to feeling tired and lethargic and passing urine more often, all common symptoms of diabetes!

So remember, Good sugar control means better quality of life for many years!

Top 15 foods to take during menopause

Top 15 foods to take during menopause

Tofu

It is important to note that most plant foods have no cholesterol compared to animal foods. On the other hand, most animal foods have other important benefits too including high protein content. It has been proven that eating more tofu has helped some perimenopausal women.

The foods help protect the heart and arteries by making the fats in our blood less damaging and plaque less likely to form.  Studies show that tofu may alleviate many of the side effects (including hot flashes) associated with Female Menopause.

Practical Tofu Tips

Be sure to check the expiration date on the package before you buy it.
Always open the package only when you are absolutely sure you are going to use it.
Always cover any unused tofu with water, cover the container with plastic wrap, and then refrigerate it. Remember to change the water every day until you use it up.

Tofu can also be frozen. But note that when you thaw it out, it will crumble into pieces. This is a quality you might want if you are using tofu in certain recipes, such as chili.

Bee Foods

Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) is traditionally thought to improve the symptoms associated with menopause.  In studies to prove this, the reporter gene expression assays suggested that 0.1-1mg/ml of royal jelly activated estrogen receptors, leading to enhanced transcription of a reporter gene through an estrogen-responsive element.

Black Cohosh

This herb has been studies and found that it may alleviate many of the side effects of female Menopause due to the 27-Deoxyacteine content of Black Cohosh mimicking the actions of the hormone Estriol. Extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L., formerly called Cimicifuga racemosa Nutt.) were evaluated for potential mechanisms of action in the alleviation of menopausal hot flashes. There was a significant reduction in the hot flushes, depression and vaginal atrophy commonly experienced by females during Menopause.

Chaste Berry (Vitex)

This herb has been reported to alleviate the symptoms of hot flushes commonly associated with female Menopause.  The extracts of two essential oils derived separately from leaf and the fruit were used and found to have an effect in symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms.

Dong Quai

This herb may facilitate the transition through female Menopause. It has been shown to alleviate many of the symptoms of female Menopause. The herb has been used for the treatment of symptoms such as hot flashes, skin flushing, perspiration and chills.  Its mechanism of action is presently unknown.  A study found the benefit of using 4.5 grams of dong quai root per day for 24 weeks to be useful for the women with menopausal symptoms.  In China, dong quai is never used alone but in combination with other Chinese herbs.

False Unicorn

Studies have shown that false unicorn may be useful for the treatment of symptoms such as hot flushes, reduced vaginal mucous causing painful coitus and poor pelvic tone in females during menopause.

Hops

Phytoestrogens are a particular group of chemicals in the general phytochemical family. They are plant chemicals that are very similar in structure to estrogen and act like weak estrogens in our bodies. They act by either blocking or enhancing estrogen action in our bodies. Heyerick, A., et al did a study on the hops extract enriched in 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN, the phytoestrogen in hops, Humulus lupulus L.) on relief of menopausal discomforts. The results prove that daily intake of a hop extract, standardized on 8-PN as a potent phytoestrogen exerted favorable effects on vasomotor symptoms in women during menopause. The hop-derived prenylated flavonoids may provide another attractive addition to the alternative treatments or herbal treatments available for relief of hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms.

Kava (Also known as kava kava)

A dose of 300 mg of Kava standardized to contain 30% Kava Lactones per day has been shown to alleviate the anxiety and depression associated with menopause. There is a significant improvement in mood in menopausal women.

Korean Ginseng

This herb has been show to particularly improve the fatigue, insomnia and depression, seen in postmenopausal women by RG seemed to be brought about in part by effects of RG on stress-related hormones. The study was done in women taking about 6grams of the processed product.

Kudzu

Also know as the Pueraria mirifica, Kudzu has been found to contain phytoestrogens. It has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of menopause also due to the isoflavonoid content in it. The isoflavanoids such as daidzein and genistein are know to prevent bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency in menopause.

Red clover

The red Clover may also help to prevent the increased rigidity (decreased elasticity) of blood vessels that occurs as a result of declining estrogens production during and after menopause. A study showed that treatment with 80 mg isoflavones (Promensil contained in the rd clover) per day resulted in a significant reduction in hot flushes. There was a significant decrease in the episodes of hot flushes of 44% of women during the study demonstrating the effectiveness of Promensil. The ingredients in promesil (flavonoids) include the genistein, daidzein, formononetin and biochanin isoflavones. So if you are at risk of heart disease, this is one of the best herbs to consider.

Tribulus terrestris

Tribulus terrestris has been widely studies for its effectiveness in eliminating female menopause-related symptoms such as apathy, depression, hot flashes, insomnia, and loss of sexual desire. It is good to consider such a preparations during menopause.

Soya beans

The Soybean is a vegetable from the Legume (Leguminosae) family. It contains isoflavanoids such as daidzein, genistein, and glycetein. In a group of menopausal women with an average of fourteen hot flashes per week, a study comparing the effectiveness of soy bean vs. that of wheat flour; the ones receiving soy flour experienced a 40% reduction in hot flashes. There are other proven benefits of soy such as reduction in cholesterol levels, prevention of uterine, endometrial, breast and prostate cancers. The side effects of soy include flatulence, indigestion and increased risk of hypothyroidism. It should be avoided in patients undergoing radiotherapy due to the genistein content that protects cancer cells from radiation

Flax Seeds

These seeds are high in phytoestrogens that may help to minimize the symptoms of menopause. The seeds also contain lignans. Many women who consume the lignan-rich flaxseed oil products have reported a reduction in symptoms such as breast tenderness, bloating, hot flashes, sweating, and vaginal dryness. Flaxseed is also a good source of soluble fiber (the type of fiber that blends with water to form a gel-like mixture in the intestines), which may help lower cholesterol.

Sesame seeds

Sesame seeds have been found to have a sex hormonal enhancement effect in postmenopausal women. In a study, when the sesame seeds, were given at a dose of 50 g/d for 5 weeks, there were significant decreases in blood dihidroepiandrosterone ( DHEAS), Total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol concentrations, the ratio of LDL-Cholesterol to HDL-Cholesterol levels. There was a noted decrease in serum DHEAS level after sesame ingestion.

References

References: Trickey, R. Women, Hormones & the Menstrual Cycle.  Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW, Australia. 1998:142

Ref: Mishima, S., et al.  Royal jelly has estrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2005

Ref: Liske, E., et al.  Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae 163 racemosae rhizoma):  a 6-month study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect.  Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine 11(2):163-174, 2002.

Ref: Chopin Lucks, B. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: a research update.  Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery

Ref: Kupfersztain, C., et al.  The immediate effect of natural plant extract, Angelica sinensis and Matricaria chamomilla (Climex) for the treatment of hot flushes during menopause. A preliminary report Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol.  30(4):203-206, 2003.

Ref: Heyerick, A., et al.  A first prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the use of a standardized hop extract to alleviate menopausal discomforts. Maturitas.  2005.

Ref: Bone, K. Tribulus for sexual dysfunction in men and women. The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, December 2004.

Ref: Cooney RV, Custer LJ, Okinaka L, Franke AA. Effects of dietary sesame seeds on plasma tocopherol levels. Nutr Cancer. 2001; 39:66–71

Alcohol overdose

Alcohol overdose

Alcohol overdose

Introduction

Poisoning from ingestion and overdose of ethanol (alcohol). It is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine. It is distributed uniformly to all organ systems, including the placenta if present. Most alcohol is metabolized in the liver.

As the blood level rises, the patient’s level of consciousness declines, that eventually ends in coma. Death is caused by aspiration or respiratory depression.

Physiologic Effects and Blood Alcohol Levels include:

  • Blood Alcohol Concentration (mg/dL) Effects
  • 20–50 Diminished fine motor control
  • 50–100 Impaired judgment; impaired coordination
  • 100–150 Difficulty with gait and balance
  • 150–250 Lethargy; difficulty sitting upright without assistance
  • 300 Coma in the novice drinker
  • 400 Respiratory depression

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Must Have Medical Tests for Women

Must Have Medical Tests for Women

Must Have Medical Tests for Women

Have you any idea that as women, we all need to have certain medical tests and health screenings throughout our lives? For example, did you know that vision and hearing screenings are recommended during every decade of your life? Learn why we need these and other health screenings.

Pap Test – The Pap test or a Pap smear is important for all women age 21 and above. Sexually active young women under 21 also need Pap assessments starting within three years of the first time sexual intercourse happened. The Pap test, originally developed by Dr. George Papanicolaou in the 1950s, detects abnormal changes in cervical cells that may led to cervical cancer if not detected by annual Pap smears.

Prior to the introduction of the Pap test, cervical malignancy was the leading cause of cancer death in women. Thanks to Dr. Papanicolaou’s research and his hard work developing the Pap smear, cervical malignancy is now 15th, among causes of cancer deaths in women with about 3,700 women dying of cervical malignancy each year.
More: What Happens During Your Pelvic Exam and Pap Test

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