Water and Sanitation

WATER AND SANITATION

WATER AND SANITATION

Water and Sanitation

Water-related diseases cause a significant strain on Human health In Kenya and World At large. Most of the diseases occur due to unavailability of clean water either for drinking, cooking or cleaning food substances. Others occur as a result of poor sanitation and personal hygiene. Water-related diseases are largely preventable and affect a significant population in the world apart from being preventable in nature. These exert a toll on the Economy significantly affecting health services provision. The problem is more common in the developing World. Cholera outbreaks have been resulted in millions of deaths every year.

Water-related infectious Diseases can be classified into five main sub-types:

  • Water-borne
  • Water-washed
  • Water-based
  • Water-related insect vector
  • Diseases caused by Poor Sanitation

WATERBORNE DISEASES

Waterborne diseases are acquired when people drink contaminated water or eat food that has been prepared with contaminated water. This forms the bulk of all water-related diseases. The diseases are normally transmitted fecal-orally, acquired when human wastes find their way in water bodies or supplies.

They include:

  • Cholera
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Girdiasis
  • Typhoid fever
  • Amoebiasis
  • Hepatitis
  • Other gastroenteritis causing bacterial infections

Cholera is the most common and deadliest occurring in epidemics in developing world. It’s a bacteria infection caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria. It causes severe diarrhea leading to dehydration and subsequent mass deaths.

WATER WASHED DISEASES

Water-washed diseases occur as a result of poor personal hygiene resulting from inadequate water availability. Improve water supply and enhanced personal hygiene comes hardy in prevention of these ailments.

THE INEVITABILITY OF CHANGE

THE INEVITABILITY OF CHANGE

THE INEVITABILITY OF CHANGE

We live in a world that is ever changing. Today, everything seems certain and peaceful and then tomorrow throws a spanner at the smooth machinery and our lives turn upside. Many times, we get all confused at this prospect of change that our solid grounds become quick sand and we lose ourselves.

We forget to ride on the wave of change and look for what is right at that particular moment and in that situation. We then fall into misery and wallow in pain and despair forgetting the words that were written by Solomon, the philosopher in biblical times; ”there is a time for everything, and a season for every activity under heaven”.

Seasons come and go. One body cell degenerate and regenerate until it reaches equilibrium, then we start growing old and eventually we die. Life is a series of beginnings and endings. Simple happenings like the passage of time and the changing weather patterns make us realize just how much of an illusion life is, that is, that nothing in this world is permanent, that everything always passes, eventually anyway, no matter how hard it may be to comprehend at the time. Persons pass, ideas pass, things pass, some quickly, others slowly.

Change is the wheel of life. Some change seen good, others bad. And as the saying goes, the only thing that is constant in our lives is change. With change, we are able to grow in many ways, so why do people oppose change so much? It is because we want to stick to our comfortable zones. We love routine, and comfortable routine at that. We forget that everything could happen at anytime. Our comfortable homes can be taken away, can be destroyed, our raging beauty can be snapped, just like that. Our loved ones can leave us, by dying or even by abandoning us. A major illness can leave you minus a body part, even more life changing.

Transitions are times of crossing or traveling from something old and familiar to something new and unfamiliar. Most transitions are small and go by almost unnoticed. Some, however, involve major disruptions in routines and force us to re- examine our values and lifestyle. We are fraught with worry when faced with the prospects of a new position, a new partner, a new home. We find it hard to let go of the past, we feel vulnerable. But we soon realize that change is part and parcel of life and that all of it is synchronized.

The best you can do in your journey through life is to look forward to the good times, at the same time hoping you shall be prepared, resilient enough to survive the tough times that are sure to come, hoping that you can find an oasis that will help sustain you as you pass through the desert. Go therefore, ahead and embrace the transitions that come your way. You never know what is awaiting you on the other side of the fence. See the opportunity in change and grab of it. It might seem scary but the results are ultimately refreshing.

Old age Diet

Old age Diet

Old age Diet

Want to know what to eat in old age? Here are some tips for a healthy Old age Diet!

  • Eat fresh fruit vegetables at every meal
  • Eat small quantity of nuts everyday because it contains protein which help to repair and restore your organisms
  • Bread, potatoes, rice or pasta in every meal aims at representing our body’s preferred source of energy
  • Include calcium rich foods such as milk, yoghurt, cheese and green leaved vegetables in your daily diet
  • Drink plenty of fluids everyday, one to two litres outside of meals. Water is the best drink although you may include some juices, skimmed milk or herbal tea
  • keep to regular meal times
  • Eat brown bread, wild rice, whole meal is recommended if you suffer from constipation due to lack of roughage in your diet
  • Your diet should have enough iron from spinach, cabbage, lentils, beans and eggs in moderation
  • Enough of vitamin D which is found in eggs and dairy product. Sunlight on the skin stimulates the production of vitamin D
  • Eat in moderation so as not to overload your digestive system
  • Avoid high calorie foods such as cakes, biscuits or sweets which do not provide other essential nutrients
  • Make meals a pleasant occasion and have a partner at meal times or if you live alone, occasionally meet up with a friend for a meal

Toxic Effects of Fish Oils

Toxic Effects of Fish Oils

Toxic Effects of Fish Oils

To the digestive System

  • The fish Oils in the form of concentrated supplements may cause Diarrhea in some people.
  • The oils in the form of concentrated supplements may cause temporary Gastrointestinal
    discomfort in some people.

To metabolism

  • The fish Oils may increase LDL Cholesterol ( bad cholesterol) levels after consumption of 12
    grams of Fish Oils per day. This causes an average increase in LDL Cholesterol levels of 8.5%.
    This increase can be negated by consuming garlic concurrently with the oils
    This is presently believed to be the only detrimental effect of Fish Oils and is not a reason to avoid
    consumption of Fish Oils as Fish Oils possess numerous other health benefits.

Fish Oils may Interfere with these Substances

  • The oils when taken regularly may cause the depletion of vitamin E. It is therefore advisable to
    consume additional vitamin E to counteract this depletion

Contamination of Fish Oils

There have been concerns raised that the fish oils do contain contaminated substances such as mercury
and organochlorines. The most contaminated fish include king mackerel, swordfish, shark and tilefish.
Studies have shown that the oils generally do not contain these contaminants as feared.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) in various species of fish cover a wide range, from less than
0.01 parts per meter (ppm) to over 3.0 ppm fresh weight, depending on factors such as pH, the
redox potential of the water, and the species, age and size of the fish. Human hair analysis for mercury
is a useful biomarker for determining long-term exposure to mercury from fish and non-fish food

Studies

In a study done by Foran, and his colleagues (The measurement of mercury levels in concentrated
over-the-counter fish oil preparations: is fish oil healthier than fish?) They found out that the levels of
mercury in the 5 different brands of fish oil ranged from nondetectable (<6 microg/L) to negligible (10-
12 microg/L). They also concluded that the mercury content of fish oil was that same as that found in
human blood. It was discussed that fish such as swordfish and shark are also a source of exposure to
the heavy metal toxin, mercury. The fish oil brands examined in this manuscript have negligible
amounts of mercury and may provide a safer alternative to fish consumption.

References: Arch Pathol Lab Med. 127(12):1603-1605, 2003.
Division of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA.

Other studies were done by Melanson and colleagues
Ref: Arch Pathol Lab Med. 129(1):74-77, 2005.
Clinical Laboratories Division, Department of Pathology, Brigham and W omen’s Hospital and
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Cookies ‘n’ Cream Dessert Cocktail

Cookies 'n' Cream Dessert Cocktail

Cookies 'n' Cream Dessert Cocktail

Ingredients (makes 6)

  • 12 (about 130 g) Oreo biscuits
  • 375 ml (1 1/2 cup) pouring cream
  • 125 ml (1/2 cup) Frangelico liqueur
  • 125 ml (1/2 cup) Kahlua liqueur
  • 125 ml (1/2 cup) Baileys Original Irish Cream liqueur
  • 3 tbs honey
  • 2 cups ice cubes
  • 375 ml (1 1/2 cup) pouring cream, extra

Method

  1. Place the biscuits in a bowl. Use the end of a rolling pin to gently pound until coarsely crushed.
  2. Use an electric beater to whisk the cream in a large bowl until firm peaks form.
  3. Place the Frangelico, Kahlua, Baileys, honey, ice cubes, extra cream and half the biscuit in the jug of a blender, and blend until the ice is crushed and the mixture is well combined.
  4. Divide the mixture among serving glasses. Top with a dollop of cream and sprinkle with the remaining biscuit to serve.

Nutrition

Energy
3246 kJ
Fat saturated
34.00 g
Fat Total
53.00 g
Carbohydrate sugars
41.00 g
Carbohydrate Total
50.00 g
Dietary Fibre
Protein
5.00 g
Cholesterol
134.00 mg
Sodium
142.60 mg

All nutrition values are per serve.

Toxic Effects of Fish Oils

Toxic Effects of Fish Oils

Toxic Effects of Fish Oils

To the digestive System

  • The fish Oils in the form of concentrated supplements may cause Diarrhea in some people.
  • The oils in the form of concentrated supplements may cause temporary Gastrointestinal
    discomfort in some people.

To metabolism

  • The fish Oils may increase LDL Cholesterol ( bad cholesterol) levels after consumption of 12
    grams of Fish Oils per day. This causes an average increase in LDL Cholesterol levels of 8.5%.
    This increase can be negated by consuming garlic concurrently with the oils
    This is presently believed to be the only detrimental effect of Fish Oils and is not a reason to avoid
    consumption of Fish Oils as Fish Oils possess numerous other health benefits.

Fish Oils may Interfere with these Substances

  • The oils when taken regularly may cause the depletion of vitamin E. It is therefore advisable to
    consume additional vitamin E to counteract this depletion

Read moreToxic Effects of Fish Oils

Fish Oils

Fish Oils

Fish Oils

Fish Oils Contain these Substances references

Lipids

Although the composition of different products can vary, a typical Fish Oil capsule contains:

  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: 33.44%. The profile of these are:
    1. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): 12.04%
    2. Clupanodonic Acid (Docosapentaenoic Acid) (DPA): 2.25%
    3. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA): 19.15%
  • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (Omega-6 Fatty Acids): 3.06%. The profile of these are:
    1. Linoleic Acid (LA): 1.9%
    2. Dihomo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid (DGLA): 0.1%
    3. Arachidonic Acid: 1.06%

Read moreFish Oils