Staging bladder cancer using the TNM system

Read Bladder Cancer First. T0 ; No tumor in specimen collected Tis ; Carcinoma in situ ( CIS) Ta: Noninvasive papillary carcinoma T1: Tumor invades lamina propria T2: Tumor invades muscle T2a: Invades superficial muscularis propria T2b: Invades deep muscularis propria T3: Tumor invades perivesical tissue T3a: Microscopic perivesical fat invasion T3b: Macroscopic perivesical fat invasion…

What are some of the tests done in lung cancer?

Read lung cancer and How do those with lung cancer present first. The most important examination at the early stage is plain chest x-ray. Other tests include the endoscopic studies CT scan of the chest MRI of the chest Tissue biopsy ( done during the endoscopy) Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy A transbronchial needle aspiration: done via a special…

Treatment of Cervical cancer

Read Cervical Cancer First. Treatment of cervical cancers depends on the staging and the depth of invasion. For example for invasion of less than 3 mm (stage IA-1) treatment includes a hysterectomy or the option of cervical conization in women who wish to preserve fertility. The staging of cervical cancer involves the following: The International…

How do those with lung cancer present

Read lung cancer first. The early symptoms of lung cancer and their prevalence include: Cough or altered cough in 60% of patients. Coughing blood( Haemoptysis) in  27% of cases Chest pain in 34%. Difficulty in breathing (Dyspnea) in 46% of cases. Loss of appetite Weight loss 56%. On examination of the patients

Treating breast cancer

There are several modes of treatment for breast cancer including: Surgical management of breast cancer Reconstructive surgery Chemotherapy or endocrine therapy Diet management. Dietary phytoestrogens such as those found in soybeans have a chemical structure that is similar to that of 17b-estradiol and can bind to the estrogen receptor to compete with estrogen. Their consumption…

Cervical cancer

Introduction Cervical cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells and tissue within the cervix (the neck of the uterus). The uterus is the womb where babies are grown. There is then an abnormal growth of cells presenting with hypertrophy (increase of cell size), hyperplasia (the increase of the numbers of cervical cells), anaplasia (formation of atypical…