CANCER CENTRE

Staging bladder cancer using the TNM system

Staging bladder cancer using the TNM system

Read Bladder Cancer First. T0 ; No tumor in specimen collected Tis ; Carcinoma in situ ( CIS) Ta: Noninvasive papillary carcinoma T1: Tumor invades lamina propria T2: Tumor invades muscle T2a: Invades superficial muscularis propria T2b: Invades deep muscularis propria T3: Tumor invades perivesical tissue T3a: Microscopic perivesical fat invasion T3b: Macroscopic perivesical fat invasion …

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What are some of the tests done in lung cancer?

What are some of the tests done in lung cancer?

Read lung cancer and How do those with lung cancer present first. The most important examination at the early stage is plain chest x-ray. Other tests include the endoscopic studies CT scan of the chest MRI of the chest Tissue biopsy ( done during the endoscopy) Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy A transbronchial needle aspiration: done via a special …

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How do those with lung cancer present

How do those with lung cancer present

Read lung cancer first. The early symptoms of lung cancer and their prevalence include: Cough or altered cough in 60% of patients. Coughing blood( Haemoptysis) in  27% of cases Chest pain in 34%. Difficulty in breathing (Dyspnea) in 46% of cases. Loss of appetite Weight loss 56%. On examination of the patients

Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer

Introduction Cervical cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells and tissue within the cervix (the neck of the uterus). The uterus is the womb where babies are grown. There is then an abnormal growth of cells presenting with hypertrophy (increase of cell size), hyperplasia (the increase of the numbers of cervical cells), anaplasia (formation of atypical …

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Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer

Definition Bladder cancer involves a group of cancers that range from non–life-threatening, low-grade, superficial papillary lesions to high-grade invasive tumors. There are various types of bladder cancer defined. What are the types of bladder cancer? The international Society of Urological Pathology Consensus had defined a mode of classification of bladder cancer as follows: Normal There …

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Diagnosing and screening breast cancer

Diagnosing and screening breast cancer

What breast cancer may resemble These non cancerous conditions may resemble breast cancer because of the presentation and on mammography examination Fibrocystic changes of the breasts Fibroadenoma Hamartoma What test are done to diagnose breast cancer The healthcare provider will perform a series of tests including taking a detailed history and physical examination from the …

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Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Definition Breast cancer is an invasive cancer of the breast affecting both men and women. The local cells of the breast grow abnormally and uncontrollable increase in size and spread to other area s of the body. Other names Carcinoma of the breast What causes breast cancer? Various causes of breast cancer have been explained, …

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer

Definition This is primary lung malignancy that arises from the lung tissue. There are several types of primary cancer of the lung including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Here are some of the listed types Adenocarcinomas: These types of cancers are common in North America and Japan. They tend …

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