Diagnosing and screening breast cancer

Diagnosing and screening breast cancer

Diagnosing and screening breast cancer

What breast cancer may resemble

These non cancerous conditions may resemble breast cancer because of the presentation and on mammography examination

  1. Fibrocystic changes of the breasts
  2. Fibroadenoma
  3. Hamartoma

What test are done to diagnose breast cancer

The healthcare provider will perform a series of tests including taking a detailed history and physical examination from the patient. Among the test done include:

Read moreDiagnosing and screening breast cancer

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Definition

Breast cancer is an invasive cancer of the breast affecting both men and women. The local cells of the breast grow abnormally and uncontrollable increase in size and spread to other area s of the body.

Other names

Carcinoma of the breast

What causes breast cancer?

Various causes of breast cancer have been explained, but the exact cause is still unknown. There are numerous risk factors that increasingly relate to the development of breast cancer such as:

  • The increase in age of a person. It is estimated that close to 50% of women with breast cancer in the western world are more that 60years of age
  • The earlier a girl gets in to menarche especially at <12 year, the higher the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • When approaching menopause late especially at over 55 years, one has an increased risk of developing breast cancer. This is an indirect cause.
  • The increasing the number of menstrual cycles could predispose women to greater DNA damage in the proliferating breast ductal tissue and thus could increase the risk of mutations that directly lead to breast cancer.
  • Child bearing at a later age is a predisposing factor to breast cancer in women.
  • Any form of benign breast tissue disease may increase the risk of cancer
  • Women who live sedentary lifestyles and do not exercise often are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer
  • Breast cancer has been associated with women who live in upper socioeconomic classes. This may also be associated with more sedentary lifestyles
  • Personal history of breast cancer (in situ or invasive)
  • Postmenopausal hormone replacement treatments with estrogen hormones (with or without progestin) have been shown to increase the risk of getting breast cancer. The risk is increased by about 1.5times
  • Developing obesity after menopause increases the risks of breast cancer in women
  • The use of oral contraceptives increases breast cancer risk minimally if at all. It is t known whether estrogen replacement alone increases risk. However there is a much more increased risk in using these hormones in leaner postmenopausal women. The exact mechanism of cancer formation is unknown but there is a possibly of interaction of ovarian estrogen and other types of estrogens of external origin with breast tissue that leads to susceptibility to develop cancer of the breast
  • Alcohol is also associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer. Surveys show that moderate alcohol intake (two to three drinks/day) has a 1 to 1.8 times the risk of developing cancer.
  • Diet effects. Increased estrogen levels have been found in women with a higher BMI. These pose as an increased risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Family history of breast cancer is a risk factor in women. The risk in first degree relatives is 2 to 4 times more. Having relatives of known high risk factors also play a role. Having two first degree relatives with breast cancer increases the risk by 5 times.
  • Women with an increased bone density have been shown to have a risk of developing cancer.
  • Having children at a later age of more than 30 years poses as a risk to women to develop breast cancer. There is even an increased risk in non-child bearing women ( nulliparous)
  • Women with a personal history of endometrial cancer do have a risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Women with larger breast masses have a more breast density that increases the breast cancer risk. The density can be shown through mammography
  • Exposure to radiation to the chest poses as a risk of developing breast cancer in women.
  • Women with an established breast cancer gene BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 are associated with high risk of developing the cancer

Continue reading Epidemiology of breast cancer.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer

Lung cancer

Definition

This is primary lung malignancy that arises from the lung tissue. There are several types of primary cancer of the lung including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Here are some of the listed types

Adenocarcinomas: These types of cancers are common in North America and Japan. They tend to occur among smokers, although nonsmokers are more likely to develop adenocarcinoma than other lung cancer types. On radiological examination, they are found more peripherally, but can occur almost anywhere, and can be multifocal. They have been known to fill the entire lobe of the lung tissue. Other x-ray findings show that they are associated with solid opacities, ground-glass opacities, or mixed patterns. Epidemiologically, Adenocarcinomas represent 35%-40% of lung carcinomas. The variants of adenocarcinomas include types such as signet ring, clear cell, mucinous, and fetal adenocarcinomas

Squamous cell (Epidermoid): This type of cancer tends to occur centrally and is highly associated a history of smoking. It’s a malignancy that shows squamous differentiation 20% to 30% of lung cancers. It spreads by locally invading the surrounding tissues and forms cavities in the lungs. The differential diagnosis includes reactive processes that may result in squamous metaplasia with reactive atypia as seen during infections or radiation-induced injury

Read moreLung cancer

Exercise in pregnancy; what you need to know

Exercise in pregnancy; what you need to know

Exercise in pregnancy; what you need to know

Exercise in pregnancy; what you need to know

You may have been having a regular exercise program or are planning to have one. There are various types of exercises available programmed ranges from light to heavy depending on your ability to manage.

Now that you are pregnant, your exercise options become limited during but a number of excellent choices exist. Activities involving running or jogging, walking, aerobic dance, bicycling, swimming, and tennis can all be pursued to some degree. Some activities should be taken up before you conceive if you wish to continue them while you’re pregnant.

Running or Jogging

We advice that you start this before conception, otherwise your muscles may not be able to support your loosening joints. This type of exercise is aimed at giving most or your muscles some strength and stamina that will help you carry the pregnancy. Trust me; you will need that strength for 9 months. If you have been doing this for some time before becoming pregnant, you may continue to pursue these activities without harm. You may enroll in a gym to have this done on the treadmill or get out to the nearest club that has sporting facilities.

Walking

Brisk walking at any time, say while going to work, or from work, while going shopping or just work out at your neighborhood helps you burn a good number of calories. You are advised to start brisk walking anytime, including during pregnancy. To do this, begin slowly bearing in mind that the whole idea is to increase your activity level gradually. Start with 5 to 10 minutes at a time and slowly increase to 20 or 30 minutes three or four times per week. Avoid this in high temperatures or humidity but you may exercise outdoors. Remember also the type of shoes you wear, High heeled shoes are a NO, NO for this type of activity. Get some good comfortable shoes, which are not tight.

Cycling

Before you start on this, make sure you have done this before, and you know how to ride a bike. Accidents happen and this is not the best time to have one. Cycling is important in that it gives you good cardiovascular workout. It’s not a weight-bearing activity and this means that the increasing weight of pregnancy will not affect your ability to continue. It is advisable to start on a regular cycling schedule before trying to conceive but even after conception this is safe. Remember always to start very easily and increase slowly. Stationary bicycles are probably the safest to use; and can be used by the pros and those who are learning to ride too. With stationary ones you avoid road traffic accidents and other risks.

Swimming

This is probably the best type of exercise. Water supports your weight during this activity. This is the best program and you may even forget that you are pregnant. Some facilities provide aquanatal classes with qualified instructors. Medical evidence indicates that submersion in water may help reduce leg edema (swelling) which affects at least 50 percent of pregnant women. It is postulated that the pressure of the water squeezes excess water from your body tissues into your bloodstream, which then gets rid of it. Avoid Jacuzzis, hot tubs, and water that is above 100°F, as these tend to overheat the body!.

Other Sports

There some sports that must be avoided. Skiing or horseback riding can cause traumatic injury to the fetus or separation of the placenta. Scuba diving has been associated with fetal hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and should be avoided. Tennis involve frequent turning, twisting, and jumping are not highly recommended during pregnancy.

Read moreExercise in pregnancy; what you need to know

Health Hazards of cigarettes

Health Hazards of cigarettes

Health Hazards of cigarettes

Smokes are smoked by over 1.1 billion people. While smoking rates possess leveled off or declined in developed nations, in developing nations tobacco usage continues to rise at a rate of around 3.4% per annum. (WHO SMOKING STATISTICS)

According to a rating by Wikipedia of cigarette usage per capita, Kenya falls 110th with 167 smokes per adult per year.
Hmmmh…At least were not in the top ten… I can hear some of you saying. But isn’t even appearing on the list is definitely bad enough? Since July 2007 apparently the federal government of Kenya thought so and therefore enforced the cigarette smoking ban in public.
Director of Medical Providers (DMS) James Nyikal said tobacco killed some 12,000 Kenyans each full year and a community ban would reduce that amount

Read moreHealth Hazards of cigarettes

Tooth discoloration; what causes it

Tooth discoloration; what causes it

Tooth discoloration; what causes it

Tooth discoloration is the change in color from the normal white enamel to the darkening or brownish discoloration. Persistent tooth discoloration can also occur as a result of the gradual thinning of the enamel layer of the tooth.

This thinning allows for more yellow -brown dentin formation underneath becoming visible. This is called amelogenesis imperfecta

What causes tooth discoloration?

Several factors play a role in this process. Exposure to some chemical s can also promote tooth discoloration in some individuals.

In amelogenesis imperfecta, the enamel is often absent and the exposed dentin has a yellowish-brown discoloration. This condition is an inherited disorder with defective tooth enamel formation caused by various gene mutations. The condition is treated with resin veneers and jacket crowns for anterior teeth, as well as steel crowns for posterior teeth

Tooth discoloration may be due to substances such as Fluoride. Excessive exposure to fluoride from drinking water, tooth pastes, supplements, and infant formulas results in fluorosis a condition of excess fluoride in the system. The excess fluoride interacts with mineralizing tissues, causing alterations in the mineralization process especially in the teeth. fluoride in the drinking water in excess of 1.5 parts per million causes coloration

  • Color disturbance may also be due to secondary to inflammation
  • Vitamin deficiencies can also cause color changes in teeth
  • Trauma to the enamel leads to the exposure of denting that shows a yellow-brown coloration
  • An isolated tooth with a grayish – blue hue may indicate the presence of a necrotic pulp, often due to prior trauma.
  • A tooth that appears pink (pink tooth of Mummery) indicates an internal tooth resorption.
  • Yellow to violet staining that fluoresces under ultraviolet light is normally due to exposure to tetracycline. It is advisable to avoid these drugs during pregnancy and up to 18 years of age as the teeth are growing and developing. Tetracycline also destroys the calcium deposits
  • It has been shown that regular use of Mouthwashes that contain Chlorhexidine as their active ingredient increases the incidence of tooth discoloration.
  • Tobacco smoking may lead to tooth discoloration.
  • Excessive consumption of coffee may cause tooth discoloration.

How to treat tooth discoloration

Tooth discoloration is an uncomfortable situation in many individuals. The causes can easily be treated and re-coloration established.

The following are some of the substances that can help treat the tooth discoloration

  • Use of toothpastes that contain substance such as soluble pyrophosphates as active ingredients may help to minimize the discoloration caused by chlorhexidine-containing Mouthwashes.
  • When applied to the teeth topically, or used as chewing gum, sodium bicarbonate help to reverse the discoloration by whitening the teeth. The substance also helps to remove stains from the teeth
  • Substances such as casein phosphopeptide when used topically to the teeth may remove the tooth discoloration by whitening them.
  • The commonest used bleaching agents for tooth discoloration include carbamide Peroxide (10% – 44%). This is an active ingredient in many bleaching agents and has shown success. It has to be used by a dentist for treatment
  • Hydrogen Peroxide (1% – 10%) is also an active ingredient in many other tooth bleaching gels used. Some of the gels can be purchased as over the counter drugs. Cautions; never buy the undiluted peroxide as it is very corrosive to the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Titanium Dioxide has for some time been used in tooth whiteners as a whitening pigment to polish the teeth.

Consult your dentist in management of this condition.

Why babies wake you up at night

Why babies wake you up at night

Why babies wake you up at night

Babies don’t think like you. They don’t have a plan and their biological clock is still underdeveloped, definitely not fit for you to maintain your normal daily routines. In fact babies’ sole programs on some days are designed to keep you awake as some may thinks.

After Bob and Nancy had their first child, they send a shout out to all the friends declaring their joy. One of the commonest responses that tagged their congratulatory messages was, ‘be ready to be on night shift’.
So what causes babies to cry especially at odd hours?

These are some of the causes:

  1. Hunger. When that brand new bundle of joy is hungry, it has only one way of communication, cry. They don’t talk, they don’t gesture out what they want, and they don’t tell you when to feed them. The point is study the times they need to feed.
  2. Thirst. Remember hunger and thirst goes hand in hand.
  3. Unusual temperatures. Keeping them in hot environs or not covering them brings out the cries, in them.
  4. Dirty diaper. The babies’ anal sphincters are not yet developed to have voluntary control. They will soil the clothing or nappies at any time, and when this wetness persists, they cry out for help.
  5. Boredom. You have one little individual who hates boredom. Keep him/her entertained when awake at all times. Or else.
  6. Pain. Colicky pains, tight fitting clothing, fever or anything that causes pain will bring out the cry.
  7. Fear. AS they grow up and start understanding the environments, they develop trust in the parents or caregivers. At certain ages, neighbors or strangers that are of course unknown to them will make then to cry out of fear.
  8. Overstimulation. Exposure to loud noises, music, sudden loud bangs or anything that stimulates them will elicit cries.

Read moreWhy babies wake you up at night

Common causes of hair loss in children

Common causes of hair loss in children

Common causes of hair loss in children

Hair loss in children is a common observation. There are several causes and most of them are easily treatable. Among the commonest know causes include:

Fungal infection (TINEA CAPITIS)

Fungal skin and scalp infections account for the majority causes of hair loss. The prevalence is about 90% of causes presenting to the doctor. The fungus has no known natural reservoir and persists for long periods on fomites, such as hairbrushes, combs, furniture, stuffed toys, and clothing. The highest incidence of this kind of infection is during school opening season when there is over crowding and contact with the infected persons. Most patients are between 1 and 10 years of age, but infection may occur at any age.

The infection survives in environments such as tight braiding, or the use of pomades.

How fungal infection presents:

The classic presentation is of one or more round to oval patches of partial to complete hair loss and with varying degrees of redness at the infection site. There may be repeated episodes of itchiness and scratching. The scratching may lead to secondary bacterial infection since there is introduction of bacteria to the injured area.

How is Tinea Diagnosed?

The bets diagnosis is clinical. The doctor examines and notices a clear pattern of presentation to the scalp. Some of the lesions may be noted on other sites such as the skin on the armpit, neck, fingers and interdigital spaces. A lab test with KOH staining also helps diagnose the fungi. The fungi are collected with a toothbrush on a culture plate or on a moistened culturette swab.

Treating fungal scalp infections

Treatment may be difficult in some patients due to various factors such as, repeated infections, poor drug compliance, incorrect diagnosis or resistance to treatment. Successful treatment requires a combination therapy with oral griseofulvin tablets and antifungal creams. Some antifungal shampoos are also available for use such as ketoconazole (candid –TV) shampoo. Griseofulvin is the agent of choice that is best taken with fatty food to promote absorption. The treatment may last 4 to 6 weeks or even up to 12 weeks depending on the response to treatment and severity.

Other types of shampoos in use include selenium sulfide 2.5%. This is done twice weekly

Partial hair loss (ALOPECIA AREATA)

Alopecia areata is a condition that is characterized by the sudden onset of asymptomatic round, bald patches located on any hair-bearing part of the body. The presentation is common on the head. There are no hair follicles and the patients have a scaly reddish crusting on the scalp. There may be pus formation too. Most patients recover well and have hair growing back in 1 to 2 years.

How alopecia areata is treated?

The main aim of treatment is to reduce the inflammation and infections. Treatments available include the use of topical steroids, topical minoxidil, tar preparations, and anthralin. Some healthcare providers may also use ultraviolet light to treat. The medications with minoxidil are used to promote hair growth and give good results.

TELOGEN EFFLUVIUM

This is a form of hair loss that is characterized by diffuse alopecia that is usually not clinically obvious to anyone but the patient and parent. The causes may be due to physiologic and pathologic stresses such as recent infections, high fever, severe influenza, surgery, and drugs. The hair follicles normally regress to the resting, or telogen, state of hair cycle. Telogen effluvium usually occurs 3 to 5 months after the stressor and is self-limited. The patients need not worry about it but may use minoxidil in cases of severe hair loss.

TRICHOTILLOMANIA

Trichotillomania is a type of hair loss that is caused by the compulsion to pull out one’s own hair. This applies traction to the hair leading to hair loss. The patients may present with areas of incomplete hair loss. Some of the hairs appear short and broken. Amazingly other areas involved include the eyebrows and eyelashes. This condition may be due to a psychiatric illness and treating it may help resolve the compulsion.

TRACTION ALOPECIA

Traction alopecia is hair loss that comes after forms of hairstyles that apply tension for long periods of time. Some patients also do like to pull on their hairs and this can cause hair loss (see Trichotillomania). The patients normally have noninflammatory linear areas of hair loss at the margins of the hairline, part line, or scattered regions, depending on hair styling or mode of traction used. The best treatment is avoidance of the causes of traction or styling products or styles that result in traction.

Diabetes: Are you scared of it?

Diabetes: Are you scared of it?

Diabetes: Are you scared of it?

What exactly is diabetes? What types do we know and what can we do about it –this is what this article is all about

WHAT IS DIABETES?

Diabetes is essentially all about blood sugar control.
Normally our blood sugar levels are all within a certain range between 3.5 mmol/L and 8 mmol/L depending on whether we are fasting or have just eaten. We have a delicate balance of blood sugar, controlled by a number of different hormones, the most important of which is Insulin.

We speak about Diabetes when the blood sugar goes above the normal reference ranges on a continuous basis.
What happens when the blood sugar is higher then normal?
It tends to stick to certain proteins in the body and leads to the symptoms & signs of diabetes, and eventually to complications if not managed adequately.

Read moreDiabetes: Are you scared of it?

Top 15 foods to take during menopause

Top 15 foods to take during menopause

Tofu

It is important to note that most plant foods have no cholesterol compared to animal foods. On the other hand, most animal foods have other important benefits too including high protein content. It has been proven that eating more tofu has helped some perimenopausal women.

The foods help protect the heart and arteries by making the fats in our blood less damaging and plaque less likely to form.  Studies show that tofu may alleviate many of the side effects (including hot flashes) associated with Female Menopause.

Practical Tofu Tips

Be sure to check the expiration date on the package before you buy it.
Always open the package only when you are absolutely sure you are going to use it.
Always cover any unused tofu with water, cover the container with plastic wrap, and then refrigerate it. Remember to change the water every day until you use it up.

Tofu can also be frozen. But note that when you thaw it out, it will crumble into pieces. This is a quality you might want if you are using tofu in certain recipes, such as chili.

Bee Foods

Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) is traditionally thought to improve the symptoms associated with menopause.  In studies to prove this, the reporter gene expression assays suggested that 0.1-1mg/ml of royal jelly activated estrogen receptors, leading to enhanced transcription of a reporter gene through an estrogen-responsive element.

Black Cohosh

This herb has been studies and found that it may alleviate many of the side effects of female Menopause due to the 27-Deoxyacteine content of Black Cohosh mimicking the actions of the hormone Estriol. Extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L., formerly called Cimicifuga racemosa Nutt.) were evaluated for potential mechanisms of action in the alleviation of menopausal hot flashes. There was a significant reduction in the hot flushes, depression and vaginal atrophy commonly experienced by females during Menopause.

Chaste Berry (Vitex)

This herb has been reported to alleviate the symptoms of hot flushes commonly associated with female Menopause.  The extracts of two essential oils derived separately from leaf and the fruit were used and found to have an effect in symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms.

Dong Quai

This herb may facilitate the transition through female Menopause. It has been shown to alleviate many of the symptoms of female Menopause. The herb has been used for the treatment of symptoms such as hot flashes, skin flushing, perspiration and chills.  Its mechanism of action is presently unknown.  A study found the benefit of using 4.5 grams of dong quai root per day for 24 weeks to be useful for the women with menopausal symptoms.  In China, dong quai is never used alone but in combination with other Chinese herbs.

False Unicorn

Studies have shown that false unicorn may be useful for the treatment of symptoms such as hot flushes, reduced vaginal mucous causing painful coitus and poor pelvic tone in females during menopause.

Hops

Phytoestrogens are a particular group of chemicals in the general phytochemical family. They are plant chemicals that are very similar in structure to estrogen and act like weak estrogens in our bodies. They act by either blocking or enhancing estrogen action in our bodies. Heyerick, A., et al did a study on the hops extract enriched in 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN, the phytoestrogen in hops, Humulus lupulus L.) on relief of menopausal discomforts. The results prove that daily intake of a hop extract, standardized on 8-PN as a potent phytoestrogen exerted favorable effects on vasomotor symptoms in women during menopause. The hop-derived prenylated flavonoids may provide another attractive addition to the alternative treatments or herbal treatments available for relief of hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms.

Kava (Also known as kava kava)

A dose of 300 mg of Kava standardized to contain 30% Kava Lactones per day has been shown to alleviate the anxiety and depression associated with menopause. There is a significant improvement in mood in menopausal women.

Korean Ginseng

This herb has been show to particularly improve the fatigue, insomnia and depression, seen in postmenopausal women by RG seemed to be brought about in part by effects of RG on stress-related hormones. The study was done in women taking about 6grams of the processed product.

Kudzu

Also know as the Pueraria mirifica, Kudzu has been found to contain phytoestrogens. It has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of menopause also due to the isoflavonoid content in it. The isoflavanoids such as daidzein and genistein are know to prevent bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency in menopause.

Red clover

The red Clover may also help to prevent the increased rigidity (decreased elasticity) of blood vessels that occurs as a result of declining estrogens production during and after menopause. A study showed that treatment with 80 mg isoflavones (Promensil contained in the rd clover) per day resulted in a significant reduction in hot flushes. There was a significant decrease in the episodes of hot flushes of 44% of women during the study demonstrating the effectiveness of Promensil. The ingredients in promesil (flavonoids) include the genistein, daidzein, formononetin and biochanin isoflavones. So if you are at risk of heart disease, this is one of the best herbs to consider.

Tribulus terrestris

Tribulus terrestris has been widely studies for its effectiveness in eliminating female menopause-related symptoms such as apathy, depression, hot flashes, insomnia, and loss of sexual desire. It is good to consider such a preparations during menopause.

Soya beans

The Soybean is a vegetable from the Legume (Leguminosae) family. It contains isoflavanoids such as daidzein, genistein, and glycetein. In a group of menopausal women with an average of fourteen hot flashes per week, a study comparing the effectiveness of soy bean vs. that of wheat flour; the ones receiving soy flour experienced a 40% reduction in hot flashes. There are other proven benefits of soy such as reduction in cholesterol levels, prevention of uterine, endometrial, breast and prostate cancers. The side effects of soy include flatulence, indigestion and increased risk of hypothyroidism. It should be avoided in patients undergoing radiotherapy due to the genistein content that protects cancer cells from radiation

Flax Seeds

These seeds are high in phytoestrogens that may help to minimize the symptoms of menopause. The seeds also contain lignans. Many women who consume the lignan-rich flaxseed oil products have reported a reduction in symptoms such as breast tenderness, bloating, hot flashes, sweating, and vaginal dryness. Flaxseed is also a good source of soluble fiber (the type of fiber that blends with water to form a gel-like mixture in the intestines), which may help lower cholesterol.

Sesame seeds

Sesame seeds have been found to have a sex hormonal enhancement effect in postmenopausal women. In a study, when the sesame seeds, were given at a dose of 50 g/d for 5 weeks, there were significant decreases in blood dihidroepiandrosterone ( DHEAS), Total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol concentrations, the ratio of LDL-Cholesterol to HDL-Cholesterol levels. There was a noted decrease in serum DHEAS level after sesame ingestion.

References

References: Trickey, R. Women, Hormones & the Menstrual Cycle.  Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW, Australia. 1998:142

Ref: Mishima, S., et al.  Royal jelly has estrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2005

Ref: Liske, E., et al.  Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae 163 racemosae rhizoma):  a 6-month study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect.  Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine 11(2):163-174, 2002.

Ref: Chopin Lucks, B. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: a research update.  Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery

Ref: Kupfersztain, C., et al.  The immediate effect of natural plant extract, Angelica sinensis and Matricaria chamomilla (Climex) for the treatment of hot flushes during menopause. A preliminary report Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol.  30(4):203-206, 2003.

Ref: Heyerick, A., et al.  A first prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the use of a standardized hop extract to alleviate menopausal discomforts. Maturitas.  2005.

Ref: Bone, K. Tribulus for sexual dysfunction in men and women. The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, December 2004.

Ref: Cooney RV, Custer LJ, Okinaka L, Franke AA. Effects of dietary sesame seeds on plasma tocopherol levels. Nutr Cancer. 2001; 39:66–71

Alcohol overdose

Alcohol overdose

Alcohol overdose

Introduction

Poisoning from ingestion and overdose of ethanol (alcohol). It is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine. It is distributed uniformly to all organ systems, including the placenta if present. Most alcohol is metabolized in the liver.

As the blood level rises, the patient’s level of consciousness declines, that eventually ends in coma. Death is caused by aspiration or respiratory depression.

Physiologic Effects and Blood Alcohol Levels include:

  • Blood Alcohol Concentration (mg/dL) Effects
  • 20–50 Diminished fine motor control
  • 50–100 Impaired judgment; impaired coordination
  • 100–150 Difficulty with gait and balance
  • 150–250 Lethargy; difficulty sitting upright without assistance
  • 300 Coma in the novice drinker
  • 400 Respiratory depression

Read moreAlcohol overdose

Must Have Medical Tests for Women

Must Have Medical Tests for Women

Must Have Medical Tests for Women

Have you any idea that as women, we all need to have certain medical tests and health screenings throughout our lives? For example, did you know that vision and hearing screenings are recommended during every decade of your life? Learn why we need these and other health screenings.

Pap Test – The Pap test or a Pap smear is important for all women age 21 and above. Sexually active young women under 21 also need Pap assessments starting within three years of the first time sexual intercourse happened. The Pap test, originally developed by Dr. George Papanicolaou in the 1950s, detects abnormal changes in cervical cells that may led to cervical cancer if not detected by annual Pap smears.

Prior to the introduction of the Pap test, cervical malignancy was the leading cause of cancer death in women. Thanks to Dr. Papanicolaou’s research and his hard work developing the Pap smear, cervical malignancy is now 15th, among causes of cancer deaths in women with about 3,700 women dying of cervical malignancy each year.
More: What Happens During Your Pelvic Exam and Pap Test

Read moreMust Have Medical Tests for Women