- The most important examination at the early stage is plain chest x-ray.
- Other tests include the endoscopic studies
- CT scan of the chest
- MRI of the chest
- Tissue biopsy ( done during the endoscopy)
- Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy
- A transbronchial needle aspiration: done via a special needle passed through the bronchoscope. This technique can be used to sample out mediastinal masses or paratracheal lymph nodes
- Transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy with fluoroscopic or CT scan guidance
- Pleural biopsy in patients with pleural effusion
- Thoracentesis of pleural effusion and cytologic evaluation of the obtained fluid
Read Health Hazards of cigarettes first.
Smoking around children:
The Dangers of Secondhand Smoke to a kid:
- Low birth weight for gestational age
- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)- children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of SIDS.
- The EPA estimates that passive smoking is responsible for between 150,000 and 300,000 of these infections in children under 18 months annually
- Asthma – According to the EPA, between 200,000 and 1,000,000 kids with asthma have their condition worsened by secondhand smoke every year. Also, passive smoking may also be responsible for thousands of new cases of asthma every year
- Chronic respiratory symptoms such as cough and wheezing may be attributed to secondhand smoke.
- Children who breathe in secondhand smoke are more likely to suffer from dental cavities, eye and nose irritation, and irritability
- Middle ear infections – exposure to ETS causes buildup of fluid in the middle ear, resulting in 700,000 to 1 1.6 million physician office visits yearly in the U.S.
Read lung cancer first.
The early symptoms of lung cancer and their prevalence include:
- Cough or altered cough in 60% of patients.
- Coughing blood( Haemoptysis) in 27% of cases
- Chest pain in 34%.
- Difficulty in breathing (Dyspnea) in 46% of cases.
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss 56%.
On examination of the patients
This is primary lung malignancy that arises from the lung tissue. There are several types of primary cancer of the lung including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Here are some of the listed types
Adenocarcinomas: These types of cancers are common in North America and Japan. They tend to occur among smokers, although nonsmokers are more likely to develop adenocarcinoma than other lung cancer types. On radiological examination, they are found more peripherally, but can occur almost anywhere, and can be multifocal. They have been known to fill the entire lobe of the lung tissue. Other x-ray findings show that they are associated with solid opacities, ground-glass opacities, or mixed patterns. Epidemiologically, Adenocarcinomas represent 35%-40% of lung carcinomas. The variants of adenocarcinomas include types such as signet ring, clear cell, mucinous, and fetal adenocarcinomas
Squamous cell (Epidermoid): This type of cancer tends to occur centrally and is highly associated a history of smoking. It’s a malignancy that shows squamous differentiation 20% to 30% of lung cancers. It spreads by locally invading the surrounding tissues and forms cavities in the lungs. The differential diagnosis includes reactive processes that may result in squamous metaplasia with reactive atypia as seen during infections or radiation-induced injury
Smokes are smoked by over 1.1 billion people. While smoking rates possess leveled off or declined in developed nations, in developing nations tobacco usage continues to rise at a rate of around 3.4% per annum. (WHO SMOKING STATISTICS)
According to a rating by Wikipedia of cigarette usage per capita, Kenya falls 110th with 167 smokes per adult per year.
Hmmmh…At least were not in the top ten… I can hear some of you saying. But isn’t even appearing on the list is definitely bad enough? Since July 2007 apparently the federal government of Kenya thought so and therefore enforced the cigarette smoking ban in public.
Director of Medical Providers (DMS) James Nyikal said tobacco killed some 12,000 Kenyans each full year and a community ban would reduce that amount