Minor Complications during Pregnancy & management

Minor Complications during Pregnancy & management

Minor Complications during Pregnancy & management

There are a few minor complications that can occur during and after childbirth.  Many of these last the whole pregnancy and are accompanied by other problems.

Morning sickness:

The condition, which can range from feelings of nausea to continuous vomiting, can occur at any time of the day or all through the day.

For some women it lasts throughout the pregnancy, but for most that have it usually fades after the third month.

Management

  1. Healthy eating – fruits and vegetables
  2. Exercise.
  3. Taking Sips of hot Water before walking up form bed or biting some biscuits between meals
  4. Eat small amounts of food regularly, drink lots of fluids, and avoid foods that make you feel nauseous.

Constipation

  • The bowel absorbs more fluid during pregnancy and food moves slower down the intestines.
  • This can lead to constipation which can in turn trigger haemorrhoids – protrusions from the anus which bleed and can be painful and itchy.

NOTE Pregnant women with constipation are discouraged from taking laxatives.

Management

  1. Eating lots of fruit and vegetables, and drinking plenty of fluids
  2. Exercise regularly,
  3. Avoiding standing still for long periods.
  4. There are also creams and suppositories on the market which lessen the irritation caused by hemorrhoids.

    Management

    • regular exercise
    • avoid long periods standing still, sitting with crossed legs and wearing tight-fitting underwear
    • sit and sleep with your feet up
    • avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy
    • use ice packs

Cramps

Sudden muscle spasms it mostly occurs at night and can be extremely painful.

Management

Massaging the affected area – often the feet – can help, as can flexing the foot and regular exercise.

Indigestion and heartburn

Indigestion can be due to hormonal changes in the early stages of pregnancy.

In the later months, it is likely to be a result of the foetus pushing the stomach upwards.

Management

  • Eat little and often, instead of big meals, avoiding fatty and spicy food and sitting up straight when eating.
  • Heartburn is as the result of the relaxation of muscles at the stomach opening which  causes excess acid in the stomach.
  • It is most likely to occur when lying flat so sleeping with feet propped up and avoiding food for two or three hours before going to bed.

Backache

Ligaments become looser during pregnancy in preparation for labour, but this can put more pressure on the lower back and pelvis, causing backache.

This is likely to increase in the later stages of pregnancy as the foetus gets heavier.

Management

  1. Avoiding lifting heavy objects,
  2. Keeping the back straight when lifting objects,
  3. wearing flat shoes and sitting with the back well supported.
  4. Exercises which involve arching the back can also help.

Other complications include:

  • faintness
  • needing to urinate often (caused by the baby pressing on the bladder)
  • bleeding gums (due to hormonal changes)
  • stretch marks, swollen feet (due to water retention)
  • vaginal discharge
  • Headaches.

Who is a good doctor

Who is a good doctor

Who is a good doctor

The definition of a good athlete, a good prosecutor, or a good artiste is fairly easy. It’s the one who scores most goals, the one who puts most criminals behind bars, and the one who sells millions of albums. The best soccer team is the one that takes home the most trophies. Having said that however, I must point out that arsenal in my opinion still remains the better team albeit it’s poor goal record.

On the other hand, what makes a good doctor is more difficult to define. Using specific parameters to measure how good a doctor is, is one of the biggest challenges for health managers. The best doctor is not the one who heals most patients, because in many specialties, cure is not the goal of patient management. In fact some of the best doctors I know are in specialties that take care of patients with terminal illnesses.

It’s not the one whose patients live the longest, because in many situations we need to add life to our patients’ days rather than adding days to their lives. In fact in some circumstances prolonging/sustaining life may be considered undesirable by the patient and his/her loved ones.
It’s not the cleverest or most knowledgeable one since there’s still so much we don’t know in medicine, that if that were the only parameter we’d all fall short.

Not the one with the best people skills, because that’s not enough in the craft of medicine. It’s definitely not the one who rakes in the most money for their practice. In my opinion however these are parameters we can’t trash wholesome when we attempt to define the attributes of a good doctor. Enough of what a good doctor is not.

To different people a good doctor means different things but there are some key attributes that most people agree on.

  • A good doctor is humane, a good person. He is a friend, compulsively compassionate, respectful, patient, a good listener and available. He takes interest in the patient as a person and not as a constellation of symptoms.
  • A good doctor appreciates and admits their limitation.
  • A good doctor has a high tolerance for ‘not knowing’ and knows when to consult. I’ve seen a many professors learn from junior students. One of the most elusive diagnoses I’ve seen made, was by a fourth year student. The professor leading the team was humble enough to pursue that possibility. Because it’s all about what’s best for the patient and not polishing our personal egos.
  • A good doctor must be knowledgeable, scholarly and in touch with current trends in medical practice. He or she must demonstrate respect for the body of science, must use evidence as a tool to optimize patient care but not merely to justify a certain course of action.
  • A good doctor must also be a critical thinker, always questioning every decision he/she makes. He/she makes decisions that add value to the task at hand. Costly investigations that confirm only what history and physical examination have discovered have no place and neither have investigations that would not change patient management.
  • A good doctor is gentle yet firm. He educates, counsels and informs the patient’s decision making. He recognizes that the ultimate responsibility for health decisions is the patient’s.

That’s the summary of who I want my doctor to be. What’s yours?

Alcohol overdose

Alcohol overdose

Alcohol overdose

Introduction

Poisoning from ingestion and overdose of ethanol (alcohol). It is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine. It is distributed uniformly to all organ systems, including the placenta if present. Most alcohol is metabolized in the liver.

As the blood level rises, the patient’s level of consciousness declines, that eventually ends in coma. Death is caused by aspiration or respiratory depression.

Physiologic Effects and Blood Alcohol Levels include:

  • Blood Alcohol Concentration (mg/dL) Effects
  • 20–50 Diminished fine motor control
  • 50–100 Impaired judgment; impaired coordination
  • 100–150 Difficulty with gait and balance
  • 150–250 Lethargy; difficulty sitting upright without assistance
  • 300 Coma in the novice drinker
  • 400 Respiratory depression

Read moreAlcohol overdose