Dating

Dating

DatingLooking for someone?

Dating is a kind of courtship, and could include any public activity undertaken by, typically, two people with the purpose of each assessing the other’s suitability as somebody in an intimate romantic relationship or as a partner. The word identifies the act of achieving and participating in some mutually arranged cultural activity. Traditional dating actions include entertainment or meals.

In lots of cultural traditions, a date could be arranged by a 1 / 3 party, who could be a grouped relative, acquaintance, or professional matchmaker. Internet dating is becoming popular recently.

Although dating etiquette is becoming more relaxed during the twentieth century, there are considerable differences between social and personal values. For example, when an activity costs money (for example, a meal), traditionally the man was expected to pay; but in recent times the practice of «going Dutch» (splitting the expenses) has become more common and more acceptable. With the wider availability of information about traditionally secretive issues individuals are more open about their interest in sexuality both in form of dating language and dress. The difference in expectation of a date in the male / female view of dating is very marked and obviously shown by the public guidance disseminated by popular media, e.g. magazines, which is in stark contrast. The average duration of courtship before proceeding to engagement or marriage varies considerably throughout the world.

Read moreDating

Testing for Fertility in Men part two

Testing for Fertility in Men part two

Testing for Fertility in Men part two

Read Testing for Fertility in Men first.

The semen liquefaction

Semen analysis should begin with a simple inspection soon after liquefaction. This is done preferably at 30 minutes after ejaculation but no longer than one hour to prevent dehydration or changes in temperature from affecting semen quality. Normal liquefied semen samples may contain jelly-like granules (gelatinous bodies) which do not liquefy. These do not appear to have any clinical significance. Poor liquefaction means the sperm may not be released to fertilize the egg.

The following are the normal settings

Read moreTesting for Fertility in Men part two

Toxic Effects of Fish Oils

Toxic Effects of Fish Oils

Toxic Effects of Fish Oils

To the digestive System

  • The fish Oils in the form of concentrated supplements may cause Diarrhea in some people.
  • The oils in the form of concentrated supplements may cause temporary Gastrointestinal
    discomfort in some people.

To metabolism

  • The fish Oils may increase LDL Cholesterol ( bad cholesterol) levels after consumption of 12
    grams of Fish Oils per day. This causes an average increase in LDL Cholesterol levels of 8.5%.
    This increase can be negated by consuming garlic concurrently with the oils
    This is presently believed to be the only detrimental effect of Fish Oils and is not a reason to avoid
    consumption of Fish Oils as Fish Oils possess numerous other health benefits.

Fish Oils may Interfere with these Substances

  • The oils when taken regularly may cause the depletion of vitamin E. It is therefore advisable to
    consume additional vitamin E to counteract this depletion

Read moreToxic Effects of Fish Oils

Valentines Day time: A complete woman’s guide

Valentines Day time: A complete woman’s guide

Valentines Day time: A complete woman’s guide

Read Valentines Day: A complete woman’s guide first.

How to look good for him, on this day

Let’s put it plain, Men have many traits in common;

  • They love their cars
  • They like to look at good breasts
  • They scan the best hips in the neighborhood
  • They love cute faces and the hair too.
  • Read the book of Solomon

Men are visual creatures by all means. Ever wondered why beer commercials have contents with the best hips and legs? The sexy connotations are not taken for granted. In her book called; Find a husband after 35, Rachel Greenwald advises women to wear dresses at all times. Studies prove that men love to see their women in dresses. With these parameters, you can use them to spice up your love. Remember, once in his eyes, some things are hard to forget. If you are walking down the streets with him and he notices a cute woman with a great body, this will linger in his mind for a while, if not a long time. You must erase it immediately. Tell you the truth, if you don’t erase it, and it happens over and over again, one thing will remain to be true; that the reason he is with you is that he can’t do better!

Read moreValentines Day time: A complete woman’s guide

How do those with lung cancer present

How do those with lung cancer present

How do those with lung cancer present

Read lung cancer first.

The early symptoms of lung cancer and their prevalence include:

  • Cough or altered cough in 60% of patients.
  • Coughing blood( Haemoptysis) in  27% of cases
  • Chest pain in 34%.
  • Difficulty in breathing (Dyspnea) in 46% of cases.
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss 56%.

On examination of the patients

Read moreHow do those with lung cancer present

INFORMATION & IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD DONATION

INFORMATION & IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD DONATION

INFORMATION & IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD DONATION

The earliest documentation of blood transfusion is found in the religious text of many civilizations.

Karl Landsteener discovered the ABO blood grouping system in 1901, which is one of the most important landmark discoveries in the transfusion medicine. In the 1970s voluntary donors were accepted as blood donors. Blood transfusion lead to the discovery of Hepatitis B transmitted by donated blood. Since then testing for the hepatitis B antigen was implemented. Further studies since then have included tests for Malaria, Syphilis, AIDS, and Hepatitis C to make donated blood as safe as possible to the recipient.

Eligibility criteria for blood donors

  • Both men and women can donate blood.
  • Should be between 18-60 years of age with a weight of 50 kg or above with normal pulse rate, body temperature and blood pressure.
  • Donors with history of epilepsy, psychotic disorders, abnormal bleeding tendencies, severe asthma, cardiovascular disorders, and malignancy are permanently unfit for blood donation.
  • Donors suffering from disease like hepatitis, malaria, measles, mumps, and syphilis may donate blood after full recovery with 3-6 months gap.
  • People who have undergone surgery may safely donate blood after 6-12 months.
  • Women donors who are pregnant or lactating cannot donate as their iron reserves are already on the lower side.

How much blood can be taken during blood donation?

Our body has 5.5 litres of blood of which only 350 ml – 450 ml (one unit) of blood is taken depending upon weight of donor. Majority of healthy adults can tolerate withdrawal of one unit of blood. The withdrawn blood volume is restored within 24 hours and the hemoglobin and cell components are restored in 2 months. Therefore it is safe to donate blood every three months.

What is done with the blood collected?

The blood is collected in sterile, pyrogen free containers with anticoagulants like CPDA (an anticoagulant used in blood collection bags) or CPDA with SAGM (a solution that gives the red blood cells optimum viability). This prevents clotting and provides nutrition for the cells. This blood is stored at 2-6 C or -20 C depending on the component to be prepared. Donated blood undergoes various tests like blood grouping, antibody detection, testing of infections like hepatitis, AIDS, Malaria, syphilis and before it reaches the recipient it undergoes compatibility testing with the recipient blood.

One unit of whole blood is separated into components making it available to different patients according to their requirement. Thus one unit of blood is converted into packed cell volume, fresh frozen plasma, platelet concentrate, cryoprecipitate and granulocytes concentrate.

AAR BLOOD DONOR CLUB

Requirement of safe blood is increasing and regular voluntary blood donations are vital for blood transfusion services.  At AAR we have a blood donors club that was launched last year and has tremendously grown with over 200 registered members. From the clubs membership, we were able to save lives of two patients who critically needed blood.

Membership is free and open to all men and women between the ages of 18 to 60.  Once someone joins they will be grouped according to their blood type and will be issued with a membership card.  Incase of a request for a certain blood group, members with that blood type will be requested to go to the hospital the patient is admitted in and donate blood.

Blood transfusions save lives and this can only be possible if we all volunteer to donate blood. And as said by an unknown author, “Nobody can do everything, but everyone can do something” we should all endeavor to give blood.

Why isn’t my medication working???

Why isn't my medication working???

Why isn't my medication working???

One of the common problems patients, or people in general face nowadays is that they need to consult a doctor repeatedly for the same medical issues they may have…they present with the question that heads this article: “why isn’t my medication working???

I as a medical doctor would like to give a brief overview of the common reasons for this happening and hopefully in the process make most of you say to yourselves “Ahaa…that makes more sense now…”

Its always important to keep some very basic facts in mind when your body shows you any symptom. These include:

A symptoms is the bodies way of communicating with us about a problem that its facing

If you think about it, when you get hurt in your body, Imagine if you couldn’t feel exactly where…you would end up causing much more damage to that area before you can rest it  or treat it. The body needs to make you feel pain in order for you to know which part of you is being damaged. This blessing is sometimes missing in diabetics whose nerves have been effected. Ask any of them the importance of pain, and how it can be used to avoid the amputation of a limb!

Some conditions are not treatable, they’re just manageable

Doctors are not God, and there are quite a few conditions that we cannot treat. In such cases we offer advice and on how to manage the condition that you may have on a long term basis to prevent the severe symptoms that one may be experiencing. In other words we may have to give you tips on how to prevent things from getting worse…this is known as tertiary prevention. The concept is not so easily digested by most patients. There comes a time when our patient come to us and tell us “we stopped the medicines because we saw no improvement”. Ensure you confirm with the doctor if the medicines were meant to prevent worsening, as in osteoarthrtitis, before you decide they are not working!!

Some conditions are self limiting, the medications given just help temporarily alleviate the symptoms while the infection takes its course

The common cold is appropriately named, as the cases are really too common. An important thing to note is that it is one of the conditions that we don’t cure. Our bodies’ immune systems is what we rely on to fight this, we only assist the symptoms that may be quite severe with our medication and allow the disease to take its course. So if the medication is not causing a lasting effect, or if the condition is persistent because of habits like exposing ones self to cold or playing in the rain, don’t think its the medication that is ineffective

As much of a nuisance some symptoms may seem, it may be playing a very important role in limiting the disease that you have… so sometimes its good to bear some of the symptoms rather than get rid of all of them!

It has been proven that the high temperatures during a fever also limit the growth of bacteria causing the infection, and the cough that one may develop in a cold is a very effective way of getting rid of the trapped pathogens in our mucus membranes…so stopping the cough or maintaining a low temperature of 36 degrees Celsius may not necessarily be a good thing all the time

When you feel better because of medication, that doesn’t mean you can resume all the stressful and difficult activities… your body mostly will require some time for recuperation

Out of site, out of mind!!! when people don’t feel their sickness any more they immediately resume their stressful and difficult activities. It’s important to remember that the result of such actions is a slow recovery and a high chance of recurrence of the problem.

The body needs rest so it can focus on rebuilding itself, and combating the remnants of the infection or disease that one has.

If you don’t help you’re body, it will not help you!

As long as you don’t understand the cause of the disease, you will never be able to stop it from recurring

When we fall sick it’s imperative to understand the source of the infection or cause of the illness. It’s not enough to just feel happy that the symptoms have gone after taking medication. Recurrent amoebic dysentery, because some patients take medicines then go back to drink the same contaminated water, has been found in many cases. The medicines may be working after all, but the disease keeps being brought back into your system before you can enjoy the medicines positive effects!!!

With the above tips, it should be clear that treatment consists of more than just taking of pills prescribed by a doctor at the appropriate dose…it’s about understanding what illness you have and how your body works to get rid of it.

I wish all the patients best of luck with their conditions as we pray for their recovery, but I advise them, and everyone in the general population to adopt the informed approach to illnesses and other medical conditions so that they may know what to expect.

Heard about yips?

Heard about yips?

Heard about yips?

Just about everyone has had moments when we get nervous breakdowns especially when we need to rise up to the occasion. School students sometimes exhibit this kind of tension during exams; actors get stage fright before an audience and sportsmen may get the yips when competition is high.

The yips refer to unintentional muscle movements especially when sportsmen need to perform maneuvers that require precision. These involuntary muscle motions occur in little muscles and are known as muscle spasms usually. It impacts players of varied sports like cricket, darts and golf and is grounds that sportsmen eliminate their professional careers sometimes.

In golf, yips are seen as a muscle twitches or spasms when golfers are trying to putt. Due to the distraction due to the shaking in the hands and wrist, this inevitably necessitates even more strokes than are necessary for the average 18 hole rating. That is common when playing big tournaments or playing against extremely competitive or seemingly best players in the overall game. Research has demonstrated that nearly 50 % of golfers have observed the yips. A few of the elements that may boost the possibility of a golfer obtaining the yips are:

  • Excessive utilization of certain muscles: it’s understandable that golfers with an increase of experience are even more at risk than people that have less experience
  • Players with a lesser handicap
  • The elderly: This can be as a result of biochemical adjustments in the brain as you grows older

Although the specific reason behind yips is not ascertained, the etiology is graded to be possibly neurological or psychological:

Read moreHeard about yips?

Osteoarthritis

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Heberden-Arthrose.JPG

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Heberden-Arthrose.JPG

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that involves cartilage destruction.

It usually presents with joint pain, joint swelling due to effusion, limitation on the range of movement and joint deformity.

It increases with age, worsened by weight gain and overuse of certain joints like in athletes.

History of bone fractures across a joint predisposes one to osteoarthritis.

Treatment is both pharmacological and non pharmacological.

Patients must realize that a cure and symptom-free state may not be achievable while physicians must understand the 3 Cs’ i.e. compliance, control and communication.

  • Compliance- patients must take the medicines as prescribed, use assistive devices as advised and exercise
  • Control is better when patients actively participate in the management of their condition and
  • Communication; People remember
    • 10% of what they read
    • 20% of what they hear
    • 50% of what they see and hear
    • 70% of what they articulate
    • 90% of what they articulate, do, or demonstrate

Physical therapy includes weight loss, aerobic exercise and use of assistive devices such as canes.

Pharmacological therapy involves use of drugs such as pain killers and steroid injections.

Ingrown Toe Nail

What is an ingrown toenail?

What is an ingrown toenail?

What is an ingrown toenail?

The right toenail is said to be ingrown, when the sides or corners of the nail curl down and dig into the pores and skin of the toe, leading to swelling, pain and redness.
Sample cases

What causes an ingrown toenail?

  • Spikes that don’t match well – Shoes that are too limited press the sides of the finger nail and help to make it curls into the skin.
  • Toenails and fingernails that are peeled off at the edge or trimmed down your corners are also more likely increasingly ingrown

To avoid ingrown claws, you should cut your nails straight across. The top of the finger nail should make a right model

Read moreIngrown Toe Nail

19 Mistakes Men Make During Sex

19 Mistakes Men Make During Sex

19 Mistakes Men Make During Sex

Introduction

This is for you men. And women who have guys who just wont get it, so that they can pass the message to them. Much as it is said that life is all about making mistakes and collecting bruises, learning from them, becoming transformed by them, some things are better learned once, even before making the mistakes. Men, lets admit that we will; change and do things better…no we will do things the right way. I have collected a few issues from women who during my practice and interaction with them, have candidly shared some of the crimes committed against them. Here are a number of them.

These are the crimes

  1. At first sight, you head straight to the groin. I wondered whether the name dogs came from
    this. Dogs at first sight will end up there, happy to see you back form where ever you have
    been. Women expect a kiss at first meeting ( OK this is for couples, pls don’t head for mouth to
    mouth with strangers). Avoiding her lips and heading straight to the 1% region as my colleague
    would call it makes her feel like she is not valued. Give her a proper passionate kiss as the
    Ultimate form of foreplay.
  2. Not calling her during the day. This is very common. Men a culpable in this by all means and expect it to be ok during the romantic moments. They say foreplay starts in the morning, or when you are leaving for work. As you part way in the morning, say goodbye with a kiss and immediately send her an email to her work address o leave a voice mail telling her how you miss her. That sets the ball rolling.
  3. Messing up her hair and massaging her roughly. You’re attempting to give her a sensual, relaxing massage to get her in the mood. Hands and fingertips are OK; If she has long hair, take time to brush with long slow strokes especially after she has had a shower or getting ready to bed.
  4. Breathing through her ear drum. There’s a clear difference between being erotic and blowing as if you’re trying to extinguish the candles on your 40th birthday cake. That hurts.
  5. Maintaining your shrubs. You must shave it off. Much as porcupines have their own means of romancing, remember she is human and steer clear of exposing her to your chin which you rake repeatedly across her face and thighs. If you have seen her turn her head from side to side, it’s not that she is fine, or having some passionate ,moments with you, it’s avoidance.
  6. Kneading her breasts and biting nipples. Most men still carry some traits from childhood, the attachment to the breasts. Please remember that those glands are heavily wired with nerve endings for touch, pain, and pressure. That makes them uncomfortable when you act like you are testing some oranges for ripeness. Do this; just gently stroke, caress, and smooth them, it takes them there. Never bite her nipples as if you are trying to deflate some balloons. Most nerve endings are located there and that increases the sensitivity. The best proven way is to lick, suck and flicking your tongue across them.
  7. Ignoring other body parts. Try to explore the who package lie you have just received some Christmas gift and you are trying to find a place to open it up. A woman is not a three point pit stop; Breast-ville East and West, and the subway tunnel. Other areas of her body are important too and may give you the same results.
  8. Unwrapping the gift awkwardly. Like the x-mas present, please find a gentle way of opening up the gift with a mind that you are environmental friendly and you will recycle the wrapping paper. That paper is her clothing. Another mistake comes with undressing prematurely. Always obtain consent for all procedures performed on them. Remember she will have to use it later. Be gentle.
  9. Attack on the clits. Too much direct pressure is painful and unpleasant. Be soft and try to caresses.
  10. Coming too soon. In fact this where the complaints come from. Women are not industrial plants, where the men stuff in the oil pipe ( penis) and pump in all the oil in to the plant and drop deada  sleep! Premature ejaculation is associated with ED, work on this. Build up slowly in sync wit her and take her there.
  11. Having a commercial break. Men are created differently. They can climb or near the climax, pause, then continue. In fact multiple orgasms happen this way. Women, unlike men, don’t pick up where they left off. When you stop, the go to have a drink or pick up a phone call, that it, they plummet back to square one very fast. If you can tell she’s not there, keep going at all costs, numb jaw or not. Please try and take her to climax,no matter what. Try to practice it. Most men would drop off dead asleep after the action with the lady wondering what’s up.
  12. Rough rides. Just be cause there are screams or near screams doe not mean you are the man. You could be causing some damage by going too hard especially when she is not ready or lubricated. If you are too heavy, try different styles. Lumping your whole body on her will turn her blue.
  13. Not coming too soon. Don’t think that because you thrust for an hour without climaxing is the mark of a Sex god. To her it’s more likely the mark of a numb vagina. You could just get her some wall hangings, so she has something to hold her interest while you’re on cross country business.
  14. Porn templates. Never use porn styles on her. In most scenes, the  women seem to love it when men ejaculate over them. In real life, it  means more laundry to do, more explanations to give too.
  15. Attempting anal sex and pretending it was an accident. This is how men earn a reputation for not being able to follow directions. Please ask before doing it and don’t think that being drunk is an excuse.
  16. Arranging her in weird poses. This is not a mannequin. If she wants to do advanced yoga in bed, fine, but unless she’s a Chinese gymnast, don’t get too ambitious. Just do what both of you are able to manage.
  17. Performing rectal examination. Read this carefully: Anal stimulation feels good for men because they have a prostate. Women don’t start looking for her prostate.
  18. Barking instructions. Please leave this to Sir Alex Ferguson.  It’s a big turn-off.
  19. Talking dirty during the action. If you have never done this before and especially if your spouse comes from a religious background, you have some explaining to do. If she wants  nasty talk, she’ll let you know

Dental Caries

Dental Caries

Dental Caries

What is dental caries?

This means continuous decay of teeth, eventually exposing the sensitive parts. The hard cover of the tooth s gradually eroded.

What teeth are mostly affected by caries?

The process affects flat teeth in premolar and molar region due to their physical appearance which allows food stagnation.

How does dental caries present?

The symptoms of caries include tooth pain and or sensitivity to cold or/and hot substances. This results from exposure of nerve endings occasioned by the decay. Other symptoms that will come with the caries include the swelling of jaws. Some patients may not have no symptoms except a visible tooth cavity.

What factors favor development of dental caries?

  • Certain foods that favor growth of bacteria
  • There must be bacteria on the teeth
  • A tooth whose surface favors food stagnation

What specific bacteria play a role in development of dental caries?

Certain species of bacteria called the streptococcus break down carbohydrates and release acids that dissolve calcium deposited in the tooth. Food particles left on the tooth also prevent the protective effect of the saliva and other oral secretions.

What are different types of caries?

These can be classified as follows:

  1. Enamel caries: affects enamel only, usually painless
  2. Dentine caries: affects both enamel and dentine, may be painful if pulp is exposed
  3. Caries of the cementum: affects cement, that is, the structure that attaches the tooth to the socket.

What are the complications of dental caries?

  • Pain
  • Spread of infections around the tooth
  • Distant spread of infections
  • Oral abscess and respiratory complications
  • Heart complications: infective endorcarditis, infection of heart valves
  • Worsening of existing medical illnesses such as diabetes.
  • Death may result from complication of dental caries

How are dental caries managed?

The methods used depend on extent of cavitation noted and presence of symptoms as well as complications. Usually, prevention of caries is the best approach. This is done by practicing good oral hygiene habits.

These include:

  • Proper brushing of the teeth after meals
  • Use of right kind of brush and changing regularly
  • Avoiding too sugary foods
  • Regular visits to dentist at least once per year for check up and advice

If dental caries are already established, they can be managed by any of the following methods singularly or in combinations:

  1. Filling
  2. Root canal treatment
  3. Crowns
  4. Tooth replacement
  5. Dentures
  6. Extraction under local anesthesia (XLA)

How can I know what kind of treatment is needed if I have dental caries?

The kind of treatment is determined by the dentist. This puts into consideration the cost of procedure, availability of procedure and materials, the extent of decay, aesthetic factors, other medical or surgical conditions present, and competence of the dental practitioner, and presence or absence of complications. Always consult a qualified personnel for advice.

What is the public health significance of dental caries?

  1. Loss of revenue through absenteeism from work
  2. Decreased quality of life
  3. Death and disability from complications such as spread of infections and respiratory compromise.
  4. Spread of infections due to use of unsterilized apparatus
  5. Increased legal cases against dental practitioners

Fish Oils

Fish Oils

Fish Oils

Fish Oils Contain these Substances references

Lipids

Although the composition of different products can vary, a typical Fish Oil capsule contains:

  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: 33.44%. The profile of these are:
    1. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): 12.04%
    2. Clupanodonic Acid (Docosapentaenoic Acid) (DPA): 2.25%
    3. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA): 19.15%
  • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (Omega-6 Fatty Acids): 3.06%. The profile of these are:
    1. Linoleic Acid (LA): 1.9%
    2. Dihomo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid (DGLA): 0.1%
    3. Arachidonic Acid: 1.06%

Read moreFish Oils

Hand washing techniques (The beginning of infection control)

Hand washing techniques (The beginning of infection control)

Hand washing techniques (The beginning of infection control)

Introduction

There are hundreds of thousands of bacteria that live on our hands. We keep on adding and removing them with our hand washing methods. We keep adding some from the things we handle, the greetings we get and many more. Most bacteria are harmless but gain entry to the body after a small weakness in our defence systems. If you imagine all the places you visited today, from your office to the washroom, you must have handled many things. By frequently washing your hands the right way you will wash away germs, i.e. bacteria and viruses. Improper hand washing techniques is one of the many ways we breach our immune defence systems. The skin is one of the body’s defence organs against such germs, by washing your hands; you are performing one of the single most important-infection prevention procedures.

What is hand washing?

Hand washing is the removal of dirt, germs or micro-organisms and other organic materials that may be present on the hands by using water.

Why do we wash hands?

By performing this procedure, we are able to remove about 99% of micro-organisms with simple soap, water and friction. This helps to reduce the rate of infection from person to person or patient to patient, patient to health worker. By reducing the rates of transmission of these organisms, we are able to directly influence the rates of infections and complications that arise.

When should we wash hands?

Basically your hands should be washed after you have performed every act or procedure, whether domestic or at the place of work. The most important times are after:

  • After blowing your nose or coughing/sneezing
  • After using toilet
  • Before handling food
  • After handling food
  • Before and after handling patients
  • After handling pets and other animals
  • Before and after procedures
  • Before changing a diaper
  • Before touching newborns (neonates) as their immunity is not well developed.
  • When physically dirty

What to use when washing hands

The three most important things you need are:

  • Water
  • Soap
  • Antiseptic solution

Water is responsible for removing and rinsing all dirt from the hands. Soap helps dissolve some of the particles and materials that cannot dissolve in water and the antiseptic soaps hep I killing the germs.

How to wash hands

The most important thing to remember is never to touch the tap with dirty hands, wash the hands than return to the tap with clean hands to close it. Basically you end up having done nothing. In most health institutions, the types of taps used are different from the taps at home for the purpose of minimizing the risk of transfer of infections. You may use a paper towel to open the tap and let it flow especially if your hands are completely dirty. After doing this;

  1. Wet hands with running water
  2. Apply soap and distribute it over the hands.
  3. Away from running water rub the palm, back of hands, between fingers, back of  fingers, thumbs, finger tips and wrist and remove debris from under the finger  nails if any.
  4. Do this for at least 20 seconds.
  5. Thoroughly rinse and dry your hands using disposable towels or hand dryer
  6. Close the tap to save on water.

The use of antibacterial / antiseptic soaps

What is an antibacterial soap?

Antibacterial soaps are agents used to clean with the aim of removing or killing bacteria that are logged in the skin, nails and hair. The soaps contain the following antibacterial agents:

  • Triclosan
  • polyhexamethylene biguanide
  • benzethonium chloride
  • farnesol

Any benefits antibacterial soaps?

Most antibacterial soaps come with ingredients in combination or as triclosan alone. There may be other kinds of antibacterial agents. Research done in the department of Surgery, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York showed that the combination of Triclosan, polyhexamethylene biguanide, and benzethonium chloride-TPB or farnesol polyhexamethylene biguanide, and benzethonium chloride-PB showed superior rapid and broad-spectrum reduction of risk of organisms developing resistance than do soaps containing triclosan alone. Hand washing with TPB and FPB soaps by healthcare workers and the general population may reduce the transmission of germs, with a lower risk of promoting the emergence of resistant organisms.

When are the antibacterial soaps effective?

A study was done in the Dial Corporation, Microbiology Department, in Scottsdale Rd., Scottsdale,  USA ( link Janice.Fuls@us.henkel.com ) and found that the antibacterial soaps effectiveness depend on the following

  • The compliance of the person using them. If used on an on and off basis, the effectiveness is reduced and the chance of bacterial resistance increased. This is because the bacteria get clever and develop mechanisms of resistance or eliminating the antibacterial agents from inside their cells
  • The soap volume. The higher the amount of soap volume the better. Less amounts are more or less ineffective in destroying the bacteria altogether
  • How much time do you spend washing? It has been studied and found that the more time spend (minimum of 15 seconds) significantly reduced the bacteria transmission.

Unacceptable hand washing methods

About the antibacterial soaps

Much has been written about the potential hazards versus benefits of antibacterial (biocide)-containing soaps. A study be the department of epidemiology university of Michigan, Ann Arbor concluded that soaps containing triclosan within the range of concentrations commonly used in the community setting (0.1%-0.45% wt/vol) were no more effective than plain soap at preventing infectious illness symptoms and reducing bacterial levels on the hands. Several laboratory studies demonstrated evidence of triclosan-adapted cross-resistance to antibiotics among different species of bacteria.

Please note the following

  • Triclosan is used in higher concentrations in hospitals and other clinical settings, and may be more effective at reducing illness and bacteria than the home setting
  • There are other soap ingredients that help fight bacteria such as savlon, peroxide hydrogen, povidone iodine or Betadine.
  • A combination of several drug ingredients is far much better than a single ingredient since it leads to faster bacterial resistance.
  • When using the soaps, allow at least 15 seconds or more wash time to be sure of the effectiveness
  • Most soaps contain only one type of ingredient ( always read the insert) and this becomes a problem when trying to reduce hand or skin bacteria
  • Not all that is seen in an advert may be true concerning eh effectiveness of some products. A lot of consumer knowledge and follow up is important

Based on the above details and research findings one should always ask him/herself; how long do I take to wash hands? Most of the time is after the dirt is gone or when the water that comes out of the hands is clear. These are practices that are not effective in removing bacteria and other organisms from the hands:

  • Not washing hands after every procedure
  • Irregular use of antibacterial soaps
  • Washing hands for less that accepted time. It is advised that you wash for at least 20 seconds
  • Using soaps that have not been medically tested and or registered as antiseptics
  • Using soaps that do not contains enough antibacterial ingredients
  • Reusing the water that is already contaminated
  • Using towels that are dirty and not frequently cleaned
  • Using wet towels to dry hands. Wet towels tend to adsorb dirt and accumulated more germs
  • Using the same towels for more than one purpose e.g. one towel for the washrooms being used in the kitchen

This week’s Bachelor Steak

This week’s Bachelor Steak

This week’s Bachelor Steak

Men are good at brunt offerings, from the days of Moses, Elijah, Solomon and David. They all did these especially to cleanse their sins or the sins of their families. In this week you may have had several ‘sins’ committed during the weekend.

But we are not going to help you up the Holy of Hollies, just a steak recipe to help you learn some stuff in the kitchen.

What you need:

  1. 1 sirloin steak, for you and the boys (nuff said)
  2. Soy sauce.
  3. The cheapest red wine available (ha!).
  4. Garlic. By the way did you read about the health benefits of garlic? One more thing, just avoid lots of this in case your spouse is thinking of you 9 months fro now.
  5. A garlic-smashing tool.
  6. Propane gas grills, if you have one.

Read moreThis week’s Bachelor Steak

Nail maintenance tips

Nail maintenance tips

Nail maintenance tips

Introduction

Nails are an important part of the body. The nail is one of the hardest parts of the human anatomy, and a durable and potent weapon. Although there are differences between fingernails and toenails, they are also quite similar

In many aspects. The fingernails growth at 3 mm/month compared with toenails at 1 mm/month. One of the reasons is because of poor blood flow to the toes compared to the fingers.

There are advantages of nails such as:

  • Protective coverings. They help protect the tips of the fingers and toes from injury or inflammation.
  • They may serve as effective weapons as anyone who has been scratched by sharp nails can confirm.

The nail anatomy

  • Nails are made of basically keratin, a fibrous protein that grows out of the front part of the top of the toe and slides forward over the nail bed. The same keratin is found in hairs.
  • The root of the nail is also called the matrix, or the growth plate.
  • The whitish area at the bottom of the nail is the lunula (half-moon), and the fold of skin lying directly over the root is the nail fold.
  • A skin layer next to the root is called the eponychium also known as the cuticle.

Keeping your nails healthy

Nails show many different indications of systemic diseases or conditions. For example in patients with anemia, the nails appear as whitish patches called apparent leuconychia which is spurious whiteness. On the other hand the nails are alive and need to be taken care of. The following are some of the facts on healthy nails:

  • A healthy nail is clear, with no discoloration on any part. There should be a normal growth pattern that follows the follows the contour of the toe or finger.
  • The nails have no nerve endings, meaning that there is no pain directly associated with damage to the nail itself. The pain that may arise may be due to the damage to the underlying tissue that has been traumatized.
  • The toenail serves no useful function to modern humans except for beauty especially in many women
  • The fingernails growth at 3 mm/month compared with toenails at 1 mm/month. One of the reasons is because of poor blood flow to the toes compared to the fingers.
  • Nails do not breathe. The nail plate is made of dead keratin and does not require oxygen. The nail bed, cuticle, and matrix do require oxygen because they are composed of live skin cells. These areas are supplied with oxygen rich blood from numerous capillaries.
  • Nails do not sweat since the bed does not contain sweat glands, so it can not perspire. While the nails do contain a lot of moisture the moisture does not build up under the acrylic nail. The moisture that causes problems under artificial nails occurs when the product lifts and moisture gets trapped underneath; most commonly caused by waiting to long between rebalances.
  • Nails do not eat and they do not need vitamin or minerals. Because nails are made from dead protein, they cannot be strengthened by vitamin or mineral supplements, or topical vitamin treatments. While severe vitamin, mineral, or protein deficiencies do affect the nails, healthy people rarely suffer from a deficiency severe enough to affect their nails.
  • The most common cause of nail  problems is an accidental or intentional, damage to them, and in most cases it is the big toe that is affected, just because it happens to be a bigger, better target than other nails
  • Some nail disorders are caused by ill-fitting shoes or erratic nail-cutting. When cutting nails, it is important to follow the contour of the cuticle

How to Give Yourself a French Manicure

This is a fairly difficult job, but after some time you easily get used to it. You must practice this. It will give you some attractive appearance from daytime denim to evening elegance. The white-tipped look will never leave you wondering whether your polish complements your outfit.

So if you want to look good, consider a French manicure.

Continue reading Tips for Nail Maintenance.

How to bleach your teeth

How to bleach your teeth

How to bleach your teeth

Tooth discoloration is the change in color from the normal white enamel to the darkening or brownish discoloration. Persistent tooth discoloration can also occur as a result of the gradual thinning of the enamel layer of the tooth.

This thinning allows for more yellow -brown dentin formation underneath becoming visible. This is called amelogenesis imperfecta

What causes tooth discoloration?

Several factors play a role in this process. Exposure to some chemical s can also promote tooth discoloration in some individuals.
In amelogenesis imperfecta, the enamel is often absent and the exposed dentin has a yellowish-brown discoloration. This condition is an inherited disorder with defective tooth enamel formation caused by various gene mutations. The condition is treated with resin veneers and jacket crowns for anterior teeth, as well as steel crowns for posterior teeth
Tooth discoloration may be due to substances such as Fluoride. Excessive exposure to fluoride from drinking water, tooth pastes, supplements, and infant formulas results in fluorosis a condition of excess fluoride in the system. The excess fluoride interacts with mineralizing tissues, causing alterations in the mineralization process especially in the teeth. fluoride in the drinking water in excess of 1.5 parts per million causes coloration

  • Color disturbance may also be due to secondary to inflammation
  • Vitamin deficiencies can also cause color changes in teeth
  • Trauma to the enamel leads to the exposure of denting that shows a yellow-brown coloration
  • An isolated tooth with a grayish – blue hue may indicate the presence of a necrotic pulp, often due to prior trauma.
  • A tooth that appears pink (pink tooth of Mummery) indicates an internal tooth resorption.
  • Yellow to violet staining that fluoresces under ultraviolet light is normally due to exposure to tetracycline. It is advisable to avoid these drugs during pregnancy and up to 18 years of age as the teeth are growing and developing. Tetracycline also destroys the calcium deposits
  • It has been shown that regular use of Mouthwashes that contain Chlorhexidine as their active ingredient increases the incidence of tooth discoloration.
  • Tobacco smoking may lead to tooth discoloration.
  • Excessive consumption of coffee may cause tooth discoloration.

There are various methods now in use for bleaching teeth.

The home based Bleaching Kits

This is a do-it-yourself method that you can use at home. The kit contains diluted dentist approved hydrogen peroxide (1% – 10%). Other kits may have carbamide Peroxide (at 10% – 20%) gel. The gel is applied topically to the teeth and left for some minutes. The gel is a good whitener for teeth that acts by breaking the stains. It also enters the enamel and dentin of the Teeth where it bleaches the stained substances.

Steps in bleaching the teeth include:

  1. Step one; Rinse the teeth with a mouth wash containing citric Acid. The acid helps to remove the pellicle, an enzyme layer that dental plaque clings to.
  2. After cleansing the teeth, use a cotton swab and dip in the hydrogen peroxide solution provided. Remember, it has to be in a concentration of 10% to 20%. You may also use the carbamide peroxide gel.
  3. The kit comes with the whitening substance such as titanium dioxide paste. After the gel application, allow a few minutes then apply the paste and polish to the surface clearly.
  4. Allow a few minute then rinse your mouth with distilled water

Please note that due to the lesser contact time of your teeth with the bleaching agents, the treatment results may not be displayed immediately. You may have to repeat this again till you get the result. If you are not comfortable with the kit, you may consult your dentist.

Dentist Supervised bleaching

This is a three step procedure that involves:

  1. Cleaning of the Teeth by the dentist to remove superficial stains. He may use the dental equipment to do this unlike what you use at home.
  2. Application of the gel to the teeth to allow bleaching and removal of the plaque. The carbamide Peroxide concentration used is about 35% – 44%. references
  3. The dentist will then provide a dental tray that is to be worn for approximately one hour everyday. This can be done at night while sleeping or during the day, which ever is comfortable to use. Note that the tray does not interfere with your speech.

Studies show that the dentist supervised bleaching is effective in about 90% of patients.

How diet helps to prevent or Treat Cervical Cancer

How diet helps to prevent or Treat Cervical Cancer

How diet helps to prevent or Treat Cervical Cancer

Diet has become an important component in fighting different types of cancer. In fact, it is recommended, for example, that you eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily and eat the right amount of food to stay healthy. Here are some of the foods and or ingredients that are important in fighting and helping in treating cervical cancer.

Vegetables

Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflowers and kales are known to contain substances such as diindolylmethane (DIM) which has been show to inhibit the development of cervical cancer. The DIM acts by inhibiting the growth of the cancer cells of induce a programmed cell death (apoptosis) of the tumor cells. Other compounds that help in killing the cancer cells include the Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) which also acts by preventing the papilloma virus-initiated cervical cancer. This is an important factor in managing cervical cancer.

Mushrooms

Karawatake Mushrooms and other compounds that contain PSP have been proven to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from cancers especially cervical cancer.
PSP is a type of Proteoglycan / Peptidomannan found in Japanese medicinal mushrooms.

Fruits

Carotenoids are an important component in inhibiting the development of cervical cancer cells. Fruits that are rich in carotenoids such as carrots, mango, cantaloupe melon, apricot, papaya, banana, apples and straw berry come in handy. Foods rich in beta carotenoids include the above mentioned in addition to water melon, grapes, spinach, Spirulina, garlic and corn.

Selenium

Selenium is an essential micronutrient with extended benefits in improving e immune system, preventing blood clotting, preventing arthrosclerosis and helping to lower blood pressure. Selenium deficiency has been found in patients with cervical cancer. Studies in lab animals have proven the same and an increase in the selenium in water given to the animal reduced the incidence by a significant amount. Foods that are rich in selenium include

  • Cereal Grains such as wheat Germ, whole grain bread, wheat Bran, barley, brown rice, oat Bran, rye, rice bran and white rice
  • Dairy foods such as cow milk and butter
  • Poultry foods  such as  chicken liver, turkey and egg yolk
  • Fungi such as dried shiitake mushrooms
  • Legumes such as kidney Beans
  • Meats including beef, liver, lamb, kidneys rabbit meat and ham
  • Nuts including brazil nuts, peanuts, almond, cashew, walnuts, hazelnuts and macadamia nuts
  • Sea foods like herring, tuna , crab , oysters, lobster, cod and prawns
  • Seeds like sunflower Seeds and mustard Seeds

Vitamins

There is a correlation between vitamin deficiency and development of cervical cancer in some patients. Vitamins such as Folic acid, vitamins B1, 2, 6 and B12, Vitamins C, D and E are important in preventing and treating cancer. Folic acid is important I development of cell DNA and deficiency of folate increases the risk of cancer development. This happens during the weak chromosomal stage when the HPV virus is incorporated into the cells.

Quinones

Coenzyme Q10 has a similar molecular structure to the vitamin E and K. It is a fat soluble compound that has been shown to help to prevent cervical cancer. The compound helps to prevent cancer cell growth and leads to rapid death of the cancer cells (apoptosis).

The sources of this compound include:

  • Dietary Oils including rape seed, soybean,  sesame, and cottonseed oil
  • Chicken eggs
  • Grains such as rice bran, wheat germ
  • Legumes including soybeans
  • Meats
  • Nuts such as hazelnuts, walnuts, chestnuts, almonds. Pistachio, and peanuts
  • Vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, spinach, cauliflower, potato, garlic, onion, eggplant and carrot
  • Commercially available supplements

Cervical cancer is a public health problem. Early diagnosis and treatment is important in reducing the incidences and complications. More over diets management is also important in prevention and treatment. Patients who are over weight are also at a higher risk of developing the cancer. This underscores the importance of having a proper diet in management of cancer among women.
Get tested.

Minor Complications during Pregnancy & management

Minor Complications during Pregnancy & management

Minor Complications during Pregnancy & management

There are a few minor complications that can occur during and after childbirth.  Many of these last the whole pregnancy and are accompanied by other problems.

Morning sickness:

The condition, which can range from feelings of nausea to continuous vomiting, can occur at any time of the day or all through the day.

For some women it lasts throughout the pregnancy, but for most that have it usually fades after the third month.

Management

  1. Healthy eating – fruits and vegetables
  2. Exercise.
  3. Taking Sips of hot Water before walking up form bed or biting some biscuits between meals
  4. Eat small amounts of food regularly, drink lots of fluids, and avoid foods that make you feel nauseous.

Constipation

  • The bowel absorbs more fluid during pregnancy and food moves slower down the intestines.
  • This can lead to constipation which can in turn trigger haemorrhoids – protrusions from the anus which bleed and can be painful and itchy.

NOTE Pregnant women with constipation are discouraged from taking laxatives.

Management

  1. Eating lots of fruit and vegetables, and drinking plenty of fluids
  2. Exercise regularly,
  3. Avoiding standing still for long periods.
  4. There are also creams and suppositories on the market which lessen the irritation caused by hemorrhoids.

    Management

    • regular exercise
    • avoid long periods standing still, sitting with crossed legs and wearing tight-fitting underwear
    • sit and sleep with your feet up
    • avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy
    • use ice packs

Cramps

Sudden muscle spasms it mostly occurs at night and can be extremely painful.

Management

Massaging the affected area – often the feet – can help, as can flexing the foot and regular exercise.

Indigestion and heartburn

Indigestion can be due to hormonal changes in the early stages of pregnancy.

In the later months, it is likely to be a result of the foetus pushing the stomach upwards.

Management

  • Eat little and often, instead of big meals, avoiding fatty and spicy food and sitting up straight when eating.
  • Heartburn is as the result of the relaxation of muscles at the stomach opening which  causes excess acid in the stomach.
  • It is most likely to occur when lying flat so sleeping with feet propped up and avoiding food for two or three hours before going to bed.

Backache

Ligaments become looser during pregnancy in preparation for labour, but this can put more pressure on the lower back and pelvis, causing backache.

This is likely to increase in the later stages of pregnancy as the foetus gets heavier.

Management

  1. Avoiding lifting heavy objects,
  2. Keeping the back straight when lifting objects,
  3. wearing flat shoes and sitting with the back well supported.
  4. Exercises which involve arching the back can also help.

Other complications include:

  • faintness
  • needing to urinate often (caused by the baby pressing on the bladder)
  • bleeding gums (due to hormonal changes)
  • stretch marks, swollen feet (due to water retention)
  • vaginal discharge
  • Headaches.

Lung Health

Lung Health

Lung Health

How can I hold my lungs healthy?

Your lungs do amazing work every day. Healthy lungs supply large amounts of oxygen to your blood and enable you to work, play and live well. They also remove the carbon dioxide and other waste gases that your body doesn’t need.

There are many things you can do to keep your lungs healthy and disease-free:

1. Stop smoking

Lungs are influenced by using tobacco which causes respiratory diseases collectively called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD including emphysema (lung rot), chronic bronchitis and asthmatic bronchitis. Smoking tobacco offers been linked to an increased risk of respiratory symptoms including coughing, phlegm, wheezing and hard or labored breathing (dyspnea).

Read moreLung Health

Intrauterine devices (IUD)

Intrauterine devices (IUD)

Intrauterine devices (IUD)

What is IUCD?

IUCD is an acronym for intrauterine contraceptive device. Intrauterine products (IUD) have been in use since early 60s but due to side effects of septic abortions and infections, they were withdrawn and only one type of Intrauterine devices (IUD) was in use by 1988. Today, IUDs continue to be the most popular reversible method of contraception and currently the choice of more than 1000 million women worldwide

What types of IUCDs are available?

There are many types like the:

  1. The 380 mm2 copper T intrauterine gadget (TCu380A, marketed as ParaGard)
  2. Levonorgestrel intrauterine program (LNG-IUS, sold as Mirena

How will an IUCD work?

Evidence suggests that IUCD impacts events before egg implantation and fertilization to allow a pregnancy. Listed below are mechanisms of the way the IUCD or IUD works. Once implanted by the gynecologist, the IUD prevents uterine pregnancy by

Read moreIntrauterine devices (IUD)

Everyday Tips To Keep The Dr Away:

Everyday Tips To Keep The Dr Away:

Everyday Tips To Keep The Dr Away:

My son was unwell for several days and for the first time I felt like a mechanic who couldn’t fix his own car. Every time I thought ah! I have this figured out something else came up. Until I met a Doctor friend who said sometimes kids get bugs that are unexplained. During this period I learnt a few things I’d like to share.

  • Regardless of child’s age all his/her utensils should be properly sterilized. Studies have shown that Rota virus infection in older children is worse than the younger ones.
  • Cold drinks e.g. water, soft drinks do affect the child because they act as a media for infections viral or bacterial especially upper and lower respiratory tract.
  • Immediately you remove your baby’s pamper especially one with stool wash your hands thoroughly before fitting him/her with new pamper.
  • Be prepared when you come to the doctor. If your child is having vomiting or diarrhea carry the stool and urine sample. These can be brought to the lab at most ONE hour after collection.
  • Make sure your child is warmly dressed especially at night since the child keeps tossing and turning chances of staying under covers are minimal. Please don’t judge by the way you feel children are more sensitive to lower temperatures than adults.
  • An important sign that your child could be feeling cold is if they start to have running nose, sneezing or coughing. Dress him/her up give warm fluids and you will see the change.
  • Reassure the child and be honest with them on exactly what is going on regardless of age. Let then know everything is being done to make them feel better but don’t over do it. It’s not the time to buy that toy or game or sweets just make it look like part of life.
  • Oh! Don’t scare the child about doctors. Many a time I’ve heard parents tell kids to ‘behave or the doctor will inject you!!’ This just makes it harder for the child to cooperate with the doctor/health profession. Also chances that your child may not say when he/she is ill are high for fear of injections. As for dentist visits, well even I, am still afraid.
  • Don’t panic regardless of what your child is going through. This just makes them worry too.
  • Do not be afraid to ask for or accept help from partner/spouse or whoever is available. You need rest and fresh mind to handle whatever comes tomorrow.

A Devastating Monster

HIV, A Devastating Monster

HIV, A Devastating Monster

Many diseases are caused by germs (microorganisms) which invade the body and alter the normal body functioning. These germs differ from one another and are thus grouped as viruses, bacteria or fungi. The most devastating and difficult diseases to treat are those caused by viruses, due to their uniqueness from other microorganisms. Viruses are very small in size (minute) and have no cellular structure, little wonder, they are called infectious particles.

The most outstanding feature of viruses is their inability to grow (replicate) outside living cells and because of this, fewer drugs are available to treat viral infections. More confounding in their ability to cause diseases is a group of viruses called retroviruses and in particular, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

So what makes HIV more confounding than other viruses?

A clearer understanding of the uniqueness of HIV can be achieved by understanding how viruses cause diseases. Viruses can only grow inside a living cell outside of which they are inactive (metabolically inert), and this is why unlike other microorganisms which invade tissue surfaces, viruses invade the cells. Following entry into a cell, a virus shuts down all the activities of the host cell, then it directs the cell to produce the materials (proteins and nucleic components) required to make new viruses (virions) during its growth.

The new (daughter) viruses then grow and mature inside the host cell and are eventually released through rupture of the cell membrane(unenveloped viruses) or by budding(enveloped viruses).Either way, both processes of release lead to the death of  the host cell whereas the new viruses infect more cells and the process continues. This process is devastating considering that most drugs cannot act against germs within the cells (intracellular pathogens). The viruses can therefore hide causing more and more infections without being destroyed and the high number of cell death eventually lead to the death of the whole organism.

In the case of HIV, what distinguishes it from other viruses and makes it a monster of sorts is the type of human body cells it invades and the subsequent weakening of the body’s immune system leading to AIDS. Within the body of an infected individual, HIV is mainly present in semen, vaginal/cervical secretions and blood. It may also be present in saliva, tears, urine, breastmilk, cerebralspinal fluid and infected discharges. The virus can be transmitted from infected person to uninfected person through sexual intercourse, from mother to child during birth, blood transfusion and use of contaminated syringes and needles.

Once inside the body, HIV infects the very cells which are meant to defend the body against germs that cause diseases. Worst of all, the virus readily infects the type of cells (CD4 T-cells) which control and regulate almost the entire body’s defense system in addition to infecting other cellular components involved in the body’s defences.As was described earlier, this state of affairs leads to massive destruction of immune cells hence leaving the body vulnerable to all kinds of disease – causing organisms which in essence would not have caused any disease had the immune cells not been depleted. The depletion of the body defences continues over a long period of time and the resulting immunosuppression paves way for opportunistic infections such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, typhoid, dysentery and meningitis. These diseases further weaken the body’s immune system resulting into immunodeficiency which eventually leads to full blown AIDS.

Indeed, the devastation caused by HIV may be compared to a nation whose armed forces have been killed and so its citizens are attacked from all sides by foreign aggressors eventually leading to the demise of that nation.